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Thor Odinson plunged into Onslaught, trying to contain him. The Fantastic Four, the majority of the Avengers, and the Hulk-less Banner followed in short order, with Doom being forced to join the sacrifice when Iron Man tackled the villain into the energy mass. Thanks to this sacrifice, the X-Men finally managed to destroy Onslaught. Doom, the Fantastic Four, and the Avengers and Banner were believed dead but were instead saved by Franklin, who created a pocket dimension called Counter-Earth to keep them safe. After several months away, the missing heroes returned from Counter-Earth , except for Doom, who remained there for a time.
Doom uncovers the secret power at the heart of the planet, an avatar of his arch-foe Reed Richards' son, Franklin, the super-powered youth who conjured this globe and left a bit of himself behind to guide it from within. Doom managed to convince the little boy to relinquish control of this world with little more than a few errant promises of a better life. When Susan Richards experienced problems with her second pregnancy while Reed was away, Johnny contacted Doom for help, correctly guessing that Doom will be unable to pass up a chance to succeed where Reed failed due to the complex events involving the then-recent resurrection of Galactus , this pregnancy is a 'repeat' of an earlier one where Sue miscarried.
Doom not only saves Sue's daughter but also cured Johnny of a recent problem with his powers where Johnny was unable to 'flame off' without technological support after becoming overcharged with energy from the Negative Zone by channeling Johnny's excess energy into Sue to keep her alive. After the birth, Doom's only apparent condition for his aid is that he be allowed to name Sue and Reed's daughter, calling her ' Valeria ' after his long-lost love.
However, this inspires a new plan where Doom makes Valeria his familiar while seeking out her namesake as part of a deal with a trio of demons; by sacrificing his old lover, Doom is granted magical powers on the level he would possess if he had spent the past years studying sorcery rather than science. The events of this were deleted from Marvel Comics continuity in the series Secret Wars. Whether or not it was sent by Doom himself remains to be seen, as does his role in the overall conflict. Doom was not invited to the wedding of Storm and the Black Panther.
However, he did send a present: an invitation to form an alliance with Latveria, using the Civil War currently going on among the hero community as a reason to quite possibly forge an alliance between their two countries. When Black Panther, on a diplomatic mission to other countries with Storm, did show up in Latveria, he presented them with a real present and extended another invitation to form an alliance with Black Panther.
He demonstrated behavior very uncharacteristic of him, however, which may or may not become a plot point later. Panther spurned the invitation, detonating an EMP that blacked out a local portion of Latveria before Doctor Doom's robots could destroy his ship. Later on, Doom is then shown collaborating with the Red Skull on a weapon that will only "be the beginning" of Captain America 's suffering. The castle was owned by a "Baron of Iron" centuries prior, who had used his technological genius to protect himself and his people.
The map the Red Skull used to find the castle bore a picture of Von Doom. Doom states that the technology the Red Skull gave him is more advanced than what he currently has and that he will become the Baron of Iron in his future; although he does not agree with the Red Skull's principles, the time paradox the situation causes forces him to comply. The Red Skull is currently in the process of reverse-engineering Doom's weapon for multiple uses, rather than the single-use Doctor Doom agreed to.
At the end of the first chapter of the X-Men event " Endangered Species ", Doom is among the various geniuses that Beast contacts to help him reverse the effects of Decimation. He spurns Beast by stating that genetics does not number among his talents. Doctor Doom later defends Latveria from the Mighty Avengers , following a revelation that it was one of Doom's satellites that carried the 'Venom Virus' released in New York City which was actually hacked by an enemy of Doom.
Despite his helping, Doom ended up falsely incarcerated at The Raft. During the " Secret Invasion " storyline, Doom was among those who escaped the Raft when a virus was uploaded into its systems by the Skrulls. At the end of this meeting, Namor and Doom are seen having a discussion of their own plans that have already been set in motion. Doom soon allies himself with the isolationist group known as the Desturi to take control of Wakanda , attacking and wounding T'Challa, then the current Black Panther, maiming him enough to prevent him from holding the mantle again. Doom's main objective was to secure Wakanda's store of vibranium, which he could mystically enhance to make himself invulnerable.
Doom was also a part of the group known as the Intelligencia after being captured to complete their plan. With the help of Bruce Banner , he escaped and returned to Latveria, damaged by this experience. At the start of the " Siege " storyline, Doom was with the Cabal discussing the current problems with the X-Men and both Avengers teams. Doom demands that Osborn at once reverse his course of action against his ally Namor, to which Osborn refuses, saying that he and Emma Frost had "crossed the line" with him. Doom, loathing Thor and the Asgardians all the more due to his recent defeat at their hands claims that he will support Osborn's "madness" should Namor be returned to him, but Osborn refuses.
Osborn's mysterious ally, the Void, violently attacks Doom, and an apparently amused Loki tells the Hood that he should go, as there is nothing here for either of them, which the Hood, now loyal to Loki due to his hand in the restoration of his mystical abilities, agrees. However, it is revealed that "Doctor Doom" who had been involved with the Cabal was actually an upgraded Doombot, which releases swarms of Doombot nanites against the Cabal, tearing down Avengers Tower and forcing its denizens, such as the Dark Avengers, to evacuate. Osborn is rescued by the Sentry, who destroys the body. When Osborn contacts the real Von Doom, Victor informs him not to ever strike him again or he would be willing to go further. It has been revealed that the Scarlet Witch seen in Wundagore Mountain is actually a Doctor Doombot which apparently means that the real one has been captured by Doom sometime after the House of M event.
This proves to be too much for Wanda to contain and it overtook her. With Wiccan and Doom's help, they seek to use the entity that is possessing Wanda to restore the powers of mutant kinds. This is stopped by the Young Avengers who are concerned at the fall-out that would ensue if the powerless mutants are suddenly re-powered only to find out that Doom intended to transfer the entity into his own body and gain Wanda's god-like powers of re-writing reality for himself. The Young Avengers confront him, but Doom accidentally kills Cassie just before Wanda and Wiccan stole his new-found powers. At the start of the story arc "Fantastic Four: Three", a guilt-ridden Doom felt that he needed to be "reborn" and was making plans to abdicate his throne and give it to Kristoff when Valeria teleported to his room unexpectedly asking for his assistance to help her father.
Valeria quickly notices that Doom had suffered brain damage from his previous battle and is slowly losing his memories; she makes a deal with him to restore his mental capacities if he helps Reed and the Fantastic Four. When Valeria asks Victor if he has a backup for restoring his memories, he reveals that Kristoff Vernard is his backup. Mister Fantastic sets up a brain transfer machine in order to help restore Victor's memories and knowledge, which is successful. When Kristoff wants to return the throne to him, Doom states that it is not time yet because of a promise he made to Valeria. When Mister Fantastic asks what promise Doom made to Valeria, Victor states that he made a promise to help her defeat Mister Fantastic when she calls for it. The Thing and the evolved Moloids give an invitation to the High Evolutionary.
Dragon Man and Alex Power give an invitation to Diablo. Upon receiving an invitation from Spider-Man, Mad Thinker is convinced to take part in the event. Bentley 23 even gives an invitation to his creator, the Wizard , along with two A. However, it is subsequently revealed that the 'Richards' they have been invited to defeat are actually members of the "Council of Reeds" alternate versions of Reed who were trapped in this universe by Valeria a while back, possessing Reed's intellect while lacking his conscience. Around this time, Von Doom performed brain surgery on the Hulk to separate him from Bruce Banner, extracting the uniquely Banner elements from Hulk's brain and cloning a new body for Banner, in return for a favor from the Hulk.
With these resources, Doom created the Parliament of Doom, an interdimensional council charged with maintaining peace across the multiverse. With the final Incursion imminent during the Secret Wars storyline, Doom usurps the power of the Beyonders with the aid of Doctor Strange and the Molecule Man,  collecting what he can of the destroyed multiverse and forming a new Battleworld consisting of different alternate realities.
He also assumes the role of God and claims complete dominion of this new world and its inhabitants, controlling them into thinking he was always the almighty force of creation; he takes Sue as his wife, Franklin, and Valeria as his children, condemns the Human Torch to be the sun and Ben Grimm to be the Shield wall and rewrites his own history to resurrect the majority of those whose deaths he caused. Richards and a ragtag collection of heroes and villains that survived the destruction of all universes challenge Doom and, with the help of Molecule Man, are able to take his power and restore the multiverse.
Opting to heal rather than harm, Reed finally uses the Beyonder's power to heal Doom's face. Doom disappears before Tony regains consciousness. Doom is trying to prove to Tony that he has changed and is trying to correct the mistakes he has made, explaining that he has arrived to check up on Tony and see if he is suffering from any side-effects from being in the presence of an exorcism. Remembering his dissatisfaction as a God, Doom decides that it was his role to help heal the world. Inspired by Stark, and informing his A. Tony confronted the Hood and stumbled into Victor. Doom took on the Hood and the unidentified demon possessing him one-on-one, and his face was severely burned by the demon in the process.
Following the villains' defeat, Victor retreated to the ruins of Castle Doom. She makes it past the many Doombots that guard the palace before finally confronting Doom himself. She tells him that Latveria has been overrun with dictators and opportunists since he left and that the nation needs its leader back. Initially rejecting Zora's pleas for help, showing her his grotesquely scarred face in the process, Victor finally agrees when she refuses to give up and hands him his iconic mask, telling him that Latveria needs its true champion. Taking the mask, Doom ventures out into Latveria, quashing the civil war that is apparently raging and vowing to fix the country with his own strength — summoning magical energy as he does. Doctor Doom is later framed for blowing up the Antlion space station and creating a black hole in its wake by Symkarian rebels who attempted to usurp his throne.
He is killed while on the run and sent to Hell at the hands of Mephisto, but is sent back to Earth by Death as he is to be her "greatest servant of all". After fighting off multiple assassins including Taskmaster and M. They are attacked by what appears to be a Symbiote-possessed Santa Claus. Doctor Doom revealed that he came to Iron Man because he heard about the new armor he is wearing and wants to extrapolate it to improve his own armor only for Iron Man to turn him down. Possessing vast amounts of wealth, knowledge, technology and power, Dr. Victor Von Doom is often considered to be one of the most evil and dangerous villains on Earth and throughout the Marvel Universe.
Doom is a polymath , scientist, and inventor who possesses genius -level intellect. Doom has invented several doomsday machines and robots during his career as a supervillain, among them being his Doombots. Doctor Doom can exert technopathic control over certain machines, most notably his Doombots. Throughout most of his publication history, he has been depicted as one of the most intelligent humans in the Marvel Universe , most famously restoring the Thing's human form, a feat Reed Richards has also accomplished but has had difficulty in maintaining over a long period of time. On the other hand, Richards managed to process all the computer calculations necessary to save the life of a disintegrating Kitty Pryde by himself, which is a feat that Doom at the time professed to be unable to do.
Doom says that unlike Richards, he is familiar with both magic and science because of his parents. He is capable of energy absorption and projection, manipulating electricity, creating protective shields, dimensional travel, healing, creating blizzards, and summoning hordes of demonic creatures. The alien Ovoids inadvertently taught Doctor Doom the process of psionically transferring his consciousness into another nearby being through simple eye contact, as well as showing him other forms of technology   which Doom uses to escape from incarcerations and to avoid being killed.
In addition, Doom has a remarkably strong and indomitable will, as demonstrated in the graphic novel Emperor Doom when he dared his prisoner, the mind-controlling Purple Man , to attempt to control him and he successfully resisted. Doom's armor augments his natural physical strength and durability to superhuman levels, to the point where he is able to hold his own against and even overpower superhuman foes like Spider-Man , the Hulk and the Thing in combat,  although he tends to rely on long-range tactics when engaging physically stronger opponents.
It is also nigh-indestructible, being able to take hits from most superhuman adversaries to some cosmic-level beings, and protects Doom from matter manipulation, reality warping and psychic assaults. The armor has an arsenal of high-tech weaponry and gadgets integrated within it, including gauntlets that can discharge lasers and force blasts, a defensive force field generator,  and a lethal electric shock that can stun or kill anyone who comes into contact with Doom. Even without his armor, Doom has proven himself to be a highly skilled hand-to-hand combatant , once even killing an endangered lion with a single punch, for no other reason than that he wished to.
As the absolute monarch of Latveria, Doctor Doom has diplomatic immunity — allowing him to escape prosecution for most of his crimes — and total control of the nation's natural and technological resources, along with its manpower, economy, and military. Doom is known for the frequent plot device where in it is revealed that his actions were actually those of a " Doombot ", one of Victor Von Doom's many robot doubles, either working on his behalf or as a result of rogue artificial intelligence. The plot element of Doombots is often used to retroactively erase events from Doom's history. On many occasions, Doom's only real weakness has been his arrogance.
Layla Miller once reflected that Doom is incapable of accepting that he himself might be the reason for his failures. This is most keenly reflected in Doom's continued refusal to accept responsibility for the accident that fully scarred his face, instead preferring to blame Reed Richards for sabotaging his experiment. While his high opinion of himself is generally accurate, he is unable to accept when others may have a better understanding of a situation than he does, with the occasional exception of hearing the recommendations of heroes such as Mister Fantastic or the Thing when it is to his advantage. Von Doom adheres to a strict code of honor at all times. However, Von Doom will keep his exact word, which may or may not be beneficial to the person to whom he has given his promise.
For example, Doom may swear that he will not harm an individual, but that only means he will not personally harm that person; it does not mean he will prevent others from harming that person. Doom's honor code led him to save Captain America from drowning because Captain America had earlier saved his life, and on another occasion he thanked Spider-Man for saving him from terrorists attacking him in an airport by allowing him to leave alive despite Spider-Man subsequently insulting him.
His code of honor also means that he will not attack a respected opponent who is weakened or at a severe disadvantage, as he regards any victory resulting from such circumstances as hollow and meaningless. He has even on several occasions battled opponents who were intent on killing the Fantastic Four , for no other reason than the fact that he does not want the ultimate defeat of the Fantastic Four to come from anyone's hands but his own. Victor Von Doom has been shown to be devoted to the welfare and well-being of his subjects. Once, he even went so far as to let his soul lay bare and be judged by the Panther God of Wakanda, who determined that he genuinely wished for a utopian future where humanity thrived, albeit one where he was in power.
Doctor Victor Von Doom's genius in science and technology has allowed him to build numerous devices to defeat his foes or gain more power. The most notable among them include:. In Neil Gaiman 's alternative-universe tale, Marvel , Dr. A mastermind genius of physics and even genetics, Von Doom keeps the Four of the Fantastick imprisoned in his castle, continually tapping Richard Reed for knowledge. The Four eventually escape during an attack on Doom's castle by the other heroes of the time, which also leads to the scarring of his face.
Otto von Doom returns in The Fantastick Four , in which he plans to visit a city beyond the edge of the world, believing they have knowledge that could restore his face. He kidnaps William Shakespeare to record these events. The comic was written by John Francis Moore for its first two years and by Warren Ellis for its third. His facial scar is the result of a mutant uprising in Latveria.
Like his counterpart, Von Doom remains a ruthless and ambitious man, though he does not express his counterpart's goal to rule the world. Doom appears as a four-armed cyborg with little of his humanity left. Doom breaks during the "mutant wars" and is now a killing machine, focused on the deaths of the Fantastic Four. He engages in final battle with the Four and is killed in an explosion when his powers react with those of Franklin and Valeria Richards. Doom is later revealed to be alive and conquers the Negative Zone after killing Annihilus and obtaining his power rod and immortality.
Doom is seen trying to destroy the Adjudicator, however he and his robotic planes are shown to disintegrate and he is last seen cheering the Fantastic Four even though he will find a way to destroy them. How he survived remains unknown. In the House of M continuity, Doom is still the ruler of Latveria, his mother is still alive, he is married to Valeria, and he has adopted Kristoff.
Reed Richards's test flight still encounters cosmic radiation, but rather than empowering Reed, Sue and John Jameson , who went up instead of Johnny Storm, the three of them are killed by the cosmic radiation. Ben Grimm survives, but his intelligence is reduced. Due to Doom's arrogance and his brutality towards Grimm, the It betrays the team; Valeria and Kristoff are killed, his mother is kidnapped, and Doom is left broken, but preparing his revenge. He genetically mutates himself to study and advance technologies and mysticism to better himself to be perfect, and transforms his skin into liquid metal and can form weapons from his hands.
Doctor Doom makes shortly cameos in Mini-Marvels. In the "Classic Mini Marvels" section, there's a short story about him in which he tries to read Marvel's comics. He can be seen in "Civil Guards" as one of the doctors that are experimenting with Spider-Man's body. In the Fantastic Five series, Doom is revealed to be held captive by the Sub-Mariner for ten years, after the destruction of Atlantis. Doom manages to escape, and uses the same device he once employed to imbue Terrax with the Power Cosmic on his Doombots- unable to use it on himself as his human body would be destroyed from the strain-, and attempts to take over the world. Taking advantage of Doom's desire to prove himself superior, Reed Richards challenges Doom to a psychic duel, using a device that will send the loser's mind to the Crossroads of Infinity.
The two are so evenly matched that both are sent to the Crossroads - although Namor notes that it is possible that Reed sacrificed himself to try to save Doom - leaving their bodies as empty shells, although Reed's teammates note that there is always a possibility that the two shall return so long as their bodies remain alive. In an alternative future set in , where a reborn King Arthur rules a renewed Camelot aided by Merlin, Doom and Iron Man are drawn to the future to oppose a plan to destroy most of Earth's population. While Iron Man confronts his descendant- wielding Excalibur in order to even the odds against his foe's upgraded armor- Doom meets his future double, who relies on technology to extend his lifespan and has allied with the future Iron Man in order to use his mobility to complete his plan.
Doom rejects his future self by pointing out that he would never do such a thing, for even if he seeks power, he always watches the cost of it, and knows that nothing he seeks could be worth such an affront to his dignity. He then kills the older Doom. In more of an anti-hero role, the Earth version of Doom is still ruler of Latveria. Doom has fortified his castle to defend against the infected superheroes and refuses help from Nick Fury , and takes in refugees for the purpose of repopulating the planet once the situation is resolved.
To the disgust of his allies, it is revealed Doom has only chosen the hardiest breeding stock of the Latverian survivors; there are no elderly people or children. Doom is forced to vaporize the mutant Dazzler and the zombified Enchantress after the latter infects the former, but is then attacked by the zombified Marvel superheroes and infected by Reed Richards, who had infected himself and his teammates on purpose. Shortly before he turns, a "dying" Doom heroically uses his portal to allow the refugees escape to another reality. Despite his defenses, the zombies breaks through once more. With only himself and Ash Williams remaining, he reveals he has been infected by the virus, and cannot go through the portal himself.
Though tempted to eat Ash, he resists, as he considers Ash to have allowed him revenge against Reed Richards, allowing the man to escape, even giving him the ability to choose one of many realities. As Ash escapes through it, Doom ultimately destroys the device, trapping himself with the zombies. Having witnessed Doom saving the refugees by using his portal for their escape, the zombified Thing suddenly attacked Doom.
When one person leans to the left the next person in line may also lean to the left, and this shift in posture may continue all the way down the line to the end, until someone else makes another movement and the whole line shifts again. This phenomenon is known as mirroring, which refers to the often subconscious practice of using nonverbal cues in a way that match those of others around us. Logically, early humans who were more successful at mirroring were more likely to secure food, shelter, and security and therefore passed that genetic disposition on down the line to us. They later told us that they were amazed at how we stood, threw our bags, and shifted position between rounds in unison. Mirroring is largely innate and subconscious, but we can more consciously use it and a variety of other nonverbal signals, like the immediacy behaviors we discussed earlier, to help create social bonds and mutual liking.
The ability to encode appropriate turn-taking signals can help ensure that we can hold the floor when needed in a conversation or work our way into a conversation smoothly, without inappropriately interrupting someone or otherwise being seen as rude. This regulating function can be useful in initial encounters when we are trying to learn more about another person and in situations where status differentials are present or compliance gaining or dominance are goals. Although close friends, family, and relational partners can sometimes be an exception, interrupting is generally considered rude and should be avoided. Active listening, for example, combines good cognitive listening practices with outwardly visible cues that signal to others that we are listening.
Listeners should also avoid distracting movements in the form of self, other, and object adaptors. Being able to control nonverbal expressions and competently encode them allows us to better manage our persona and project a desired self to others—for example, a self that is perceived as competent, socially attractive, and engaging. Being nonverbally expressive during initial interactions usually leads to more favorable impressions. So smiling, keeping an attentive posture, and offering a solid handshake help communicate confidence and enthusiasm that can be useful on a first date, during a job interview, when visiting family for the holidays, or when running into an acquaintance at the grocery store.
Nonverbal communication can also impact the impressions you make as a student. Research has also found that students who are more nonverbally expressive are liked more by their teachers and are more likely to have their requests met by their teachers. Mottet, Steven A. Beebe, Paul C. Raffeld, and Michelle L. While it is important to recognize that we send nonverbal signals through multiple channels simultaneously, we can also increase our nonverbal communication competence by becoming more aware of how it operates in specific channels. Although no one can truly offer you a rulebook on how to effectively send every type of nonverbal signal, there are several nonverbal guidebooks that are written from more anecdotal and less academic perspectives.
The following guidelines may help you more effectively encode nonverbal messages sent using your hands, arms, body, and face. Mark L. Knapp and Kerry J. The following may help you more effectively encode nonverbal signals related to interpersonal distances. The following guidelines may help you more effectively encode nonverbal signals related to personal presentation and environment. We learn to decode or interpret nonverbal messages through practice and by internalizing social norms. Following the suggestions to become a better encoder of nonverbal communication will lead to better decoding competence through increased awareness. Since nonverbal communication is more ambiguous than verbal communication, we have to learn to interpret these cues as clusters within contexts.
My favorite way to increase my knowledge about nonverbal communication is to engage in people watching. Just by consciously taking in the variety of nonverbal signals around us, we can build our awareness and occasionally be entertained. Skilled decoders of nonverbal messages are said to have nonverbal sensitivity, which, very similarly to skilled encoders, leads them to have larger social networks, be more popular, and exhibit less social anxiety.
The first guideline for decoding nonverbal communication is to realize that there is no nonverbal dictionary. Some nonverbal scholars and many nonverbal skill trainers have tried to catalog nonverbal communication like we do verbal communication to create dictionary-like guides that people can use to interpret nonverbal signals. Peter J. Rather than using a list of specific rules, I suggest people develop more general tools that will be useful in and adaptable to a variety of contexts.
The second guideline for decoding nonverbal signals is to recognize that certain nonverbal signals are related. To get a more nuanced understanding of the meaning behind nonverbal cues, we can look at them as progressive or layered. For example, people engaging in negative critical evaluation of a speaker may cross their legs, cross one arm over their stomach, and put the other arm up so the index finger is resting close to the eye while the chin rests on the thumb. Instead, he or she would likely start with one and then layer more cues on as the feelings intensified.
If we notice that a person is starting to build related signals like the ones above onto one another, we might be able to intervene in the negative reaction that is building. Of course, as nonverbal cues are layered on, they may contradict other signals, in which case we can turn to context clues to aid our interpretation. We will learn more specifics about nonverbal communication in relational, professional, and cultural contexts in Section 4. People have idiosyncratic nonverbal behaviors, which create an individual context that varies with each person.
Even though we generally fit into certain social and cultural patterns, some people deviate from those norms. For example, some cultures tend toward less touching and greater interpersonal distances during interactions. The United States falls into this general category, but there are people who were socialized into these norms who as individuals deviate from them and touch more and stand closer to others while conversing. As the idiosyncratic communicator inches toward his or her conversational partner, the partner may inch back to reestablish the interpersonal distance norm.
Such deviations may lead people to misinterpret sexual or romantic interest or feel uncomfortable. While these actions could indicate such interest, they could also be idiosyncratic. As this example shows, these individual differences can increase the ambiguity of nonverbal communication, but when observed over a period of time, they can actually help us generate meaning. In such cases, we have to turn to our knowledge about specific types of nonverbal communication or draw from more general contextual knowledge.
In addition, many of the suggestions in the section on encoding competence can be adapted usefully to decoding. Although people rely on nonverbal communication more than verbal to determine whether or not a person is being deceptive, there is no set profile of deceptive behaviors that you can use to create your own nonverbally based lie detector. Research finds that people generally perceive themselves as good detectors of deception, but when tested people only accurately detect deception at levels a little higher than what we would by random chance.
Given that deception is so widespread and common, it is estimated that we actually only detect about half the lies that we are told, meaning we all operate on false information without even being aware of it. Although this may be disappointing to those of you reading who like to think of yourselves as human lie detectors, there are some forces working against our deception detecting abilities. One such force is the truth bias, which leads us to believe that a person is telling the truth, especially if we know and like that person. Conversely, people who have interpersonal trust issues and people in occupations like law enforcement may also have a lie bias, meaning they assume people are lying to them more often than not. It is believed that deceptive nonverbal behaviors result from nonverbal leakage, which refers to nonverbal behaviors that occur as we try to control the cognitive and physical changes that happen during states of cognitive and physical arousal.
Anxiety is a form of arousal that leads to bodily reactions like those we experience when we perceive danger or become excited for some other reason. Some of these reactions are visible, such as increased movements, and some are audible, such as changes in voice pitch, volume, or rate. Other reactions, such as changes in the electrical conductivity of the skin, increased breathing, and increased heart rate, are not always detectable. Polygraph machines, or lie detectors, work on the principle that the presence of signs of arousal is a reliable indicator of deception in situations where other factors that would also evoke such signals are absent. These signals appear and increase because we are conflicted about the act of deception, since we are conditioned to believe that being honest is better than lying, we are afraid of getting caught and punished, and we are motivated to succeed with the act of deception—in essence, to get away with it.
Leakage also occurs because of the increased cognitive demands associated with deception. Our cognitive activity increases when we have to decide whether to engage in deception or not, which often involves some internal debate. If we decide to engage in deception, we then have to compose a fabrication or execute some other manipulation strategy that we think is believable. To make things more complicated, we usually tailor our manipulation strategy to the person to whom we are speaking. Of course, skilled and experienced deceivers develop new scripts that can also become familiar and comfortable and allow them to engage in deception without arousing as much anxiety or triggering the physical reactions to it.
There are certain nonverbal cues that have been associated with deception, but the problem is that these cues are also associated with other behaviors, which could lead you to assume someone is being deceptive when they are actually nervous, guilty, or excited. In general, people who are more expressive are better deceivers and people who are typically anxious are not good liars. Research also shows that people get better at lying as they get older, because they learn more about the intricacies of communication signals and they also get more time to practice.
Studies have found that actors, politicians, lawyers, and salespeople are also better liars, because they are generally higher self-monitors and have learned how to suppress internal feelings and monitor their external behaviors. The research on deception and nonverbal communication indicates that heightened arousal and increased cognitive demands contribute to the presence of nonverbal behaviors that can be associated with deception. Remember, however, that these nonverbal behaviors are not solely related to deception and also manifest as a result of other emotional or cognitive states.
Additionally, when people are falsely accused of deception, the signs that they exhibit as a result of the stress of being falsely accused are very similar to the signals exhibited by people who are actually engaging in deception. There are common misconceptions about what behaviors are associated with deception. Behaviors mistakenly linked to deception include longer response times, slower speech rates, decreased eye contact, increased body movements, excessive swallowing, and less smiling. None of these have consistently been associated with deception. This predisposition can lead us to focus on nonverbal cues while overlooking verbal signals of deception. A large study found that people were better able to detect deception by sound alone than they were when exposed to both auditory and visual cues.
Aside from nonverbal cues, also listen for inconsistencies in or contradictions between statements, which can also be used to tell when others are being deceptive. The following are some nonverbal signals that have been associated with deception in research studies, but be cautious about viewing these as absolutes since individual and contextual differences should also be considered. One of the most powerful associations between nonverbal behaviors and deception is the presence of adaptors.
Self-touches like wringing hands and object-adaptors like playing with a pencil or messing with clothing have been shown to correlate to deception. Some highly experienced deceivers, however, can control the presence of adaptors. Eye contact. Deceivers tend to use more eye contact when lying to friends, perhaps to try to increase feelings of immediacy or warmth, and less eye contact when lying to strangers. A review of many studies of deception indicates that increased eye blinking is associated with deception, probably because of heightened arousal and cognitive activity.
Facial expressions. People can intentionally use facial expressions to try to deceive, and there are five primary ways that this may occur. People may show feelings that they do not actually have, show a higher intensity of feelings than they actually have, try to show no feelings, try to show less feeling than they actually have, or mask one feeling with another. One of the most common nonverbal signs of deception is speech errors. Studies also show that an increase in verbal pitch is associated with deception and is likely caused by heightened arousal and tension. Speech turns are often thought to correspond to deception, but there is no consensus among researchers as to the exact relationship.
Most studies reveal that deceivers talk less, especially in response to direct questions. Scenario 1. A politician is questioned by a reporter about allegations that she used taxpayer money to fund personal vacations. Scenario 2. You ask your roommate if you can borrow his car to go pick up a friend from the train station about ten miles away. I mean, is there someone else you could ask or someone else who could get her? Scenario 3. Those were my ideas. Nonverbal communication receives less attention than verbal communication as a part of our everyday lives. In addition, learning about cultural differences in nonverbal communication is important for people traveling abroad but also due to our increasingly multinational business world and the expanding diversity and increased frequency of intercultural communication within our own borders.
A central, if not primary, function of nonverbal communication is the establishment and maintenance of interpersonal relationships. Further, people who are skilled at encoding nonverbal messages have various interpersonal advantages, including being more popular, having larger social networks consisting of both acquaintances and close friends, and being less likely to be lonely or socially anxious.
Nonverbal communication increases our expressivity, and people generally find attractive and want to pay more attention to things that are expressive. This increases our chances of initiating interpersonal relationships. Relationships then form as a result of some initial exchanges of verbal and nonverbal information through mutual self-disclosure. As the depth of self-disclosure increases, messages become more meaningful if they are accompanied by congruent nonverbal cues. Impressions formed at this stage of interaction help determine whether or not a relationship will progress.
As relationships progress from basic information exchange and the establishment of early interpersonal bonds to more substantial emotional connections, nonverbal communication plays a more central role. Nonverbal communication helps maintain relationships once they have moved beyond the initial stages by helping us communicate emotions and seek and provide social and emotional support. In terms of communicating emotions, competent communicators know when it is appropriate to express emotions and when more self-regulation is needed. They also know how to adjust their emotional expressions to fit various contexts and individuals, which is useful in preventing emotional imbalances within a relationship. Emotional imbalances occur when one relational partner expresses too much emotion in a way that becomes a burden for the other person.
Occasionally, one relational partner may be going through an extended period of emotional distress, which can become very difficult for other people in his or her life. Since people with nonverbal communication competence are already more likely to have larger social support networks, it is likely that they will be able to spread around their emotional communication, specifically related to negative emotions, in ways that do not burden others.
Unfortunately, since people with less nonverbal skill are likely to have smaller social networks, they may end up targeting one or two people for their emotional communication, which could lead the other people to withdraw from the relationship. Expressing the need for support is also an important part of relational maintenance. People who lack nonverbal encoding skills may send unclear or subtle cues requesting support that are not picked up on by others, which can lead to increased feelings of loneliness.
Skilled encoders of nonverbal messages, on the other hand, are able to appropriately communicate the need for support in recognizable ways. As relationships progress in terms of closeness and intimacy, nonverbal signals become a shorthand form of communicating, as information can be conveyed with a particular look, gesture, tone of voice, or posture. Surveys of current professionals and managers have found that most report that nonverbal skills are important to their jobs. Although important, there is rarely any training or instruction related to nonverbal communication, and a consistent issue that has been reported by employees has been difficulty with mixed messages coming from managers.
Interpreting contradictory verbal and nonverbal messages is challenging in any context and can have negative effects on job satisfaction and productivity. For example, appropriate nonverbal cues can convey the seriousness of a customer or coworker complaint, help ease the delivery of constructive criticism, or reinforce positive feedback. Professionals also need to be aware of how context, status, and power intersect with specific channels of nonverbal communication. For example, even casual touching of supervisees, mentees, or employees may be considered condescending or inappropriate in certain situations.
A well-deserved pat on the back is different from an unnecessary hand on the shoulder to say hello at the start of a business meeting. In general, interpreting emotions from nonverbal cues can have interpersonal and professional benefits. One study found that salespeople who were skilled at recognizing emotions through nonverbal cues sold more products and earned higher salaries. Aside from bringing financial rewards, nonverbal communication also helps create supportive climates. Bosses, supervisors, and service providers like therapists can help create rapport and a positive climate by consciously mirroring the nonverbal communication of their employees or clients. In addition, mirroring the nonverbal communication of others during a job interview, during a sales pitch, or during a performance evaluation can help put the other person at ease and establish rapport.
Much of the mirroring we do is natural, so trying to overcompensate may actually be detrimental, but engaging in self-monitoring and making small adjustments could be beneficial. You can also use nonverbal communication to bring positive attention to yourself. Being able to nonverbally encode turn-taking cues can allow people to contribute to conversations at relevant times, and getting an idea or a piece of information or feedback in at the right time can help bring attention to your professional competence.
A person who comes across as too enthusiastic may be seen as pushy or fake, and a person who comes across as too relaxed may be seen as unprofessional and unmotivated. As with other aspects of communication, norms for nonverbal communication vary from country to country and also among cultures within a particular country. Smiling is also a universal nonverbal behavior, but the triggers that lead a person to smile vary from culture to culture. The expansion of media, particularly from the United States and other Western countries around the world, is leading to more nonverbal similarities among cultures, but the biggest cultural differences in nonverbal communication occur within the categories of eye contact, touch, and personal space.
Next, we will overview some interesting and instructive differences within several channels of nonverbal communication that we have discussed so far. As you read, remember that these are not absolute, in that nonverbal communication like other forms of communication is influenced by context and varies among individuals within a particular cultural group as well. Cultural variations in the way we gesture, use head movements, and use eye contact fall under the nonverbal category of kinesics. Remember that emblems are gestures that correspond to a word and an agreed- on meaning.
When we use our fingers to count, we are using emblematic gestures, but even our way of counting varies among cultures. I could fairly accurately separate British people and US Americans from French, Greek, and German people based on a simple and common gesture. Second, keeping the five displayed, change it to a two. If you are from the United States or Britain you are probably holding up your index finder and your middle finger. If you are from another European country you are probably holding up your thumb and index finger. While Americans and Brits start counting on their index finger and end with five on their thumb, other Europeans start counting on their thumb and end with five on their pinky finger.
So using that familiar gesture to say you surrender might actually end up escalating rather than ending a conflict if used in Greece. Bowing is a nonverbal greeting ritual that is more common in Asian cultures than Western cultures, but the head nod, which is a common form of acknowledgement in many cultures, is actually an abbreviated bow. Japan is considered a noncontact culture, which refers to cultural groups in which people stand farther apart while talking, make less eye contact, and touch less during regular interactions. Because of this, bowing is the preferred nonverbal greeting over handshaking. Bows vary based on status, with higher status people bowing the least. For example, in order to indicate the status of another person, a Japanese businessperson may bow deeply.
An interesting ritual associated with the bow is the exchange of business cards when greeting someone in Japan. In some cultures, avoiding eye contact is considered a sign of respect. Such eye contact aversion, however, could be seen as a sign that the other person is being deceptive, is bored, or is being rude. Some Native American nations teach that people should avoid eye contact with elders, teachers, and other people with status.
Shaking hands as a typical touch greeting, for example, varies among cultures. It is customary for British, Australian, German, and US American colleagues to shake hands when seeing each other for the first time and then to shake again when departing company. In the United States, the colleagues do not normally shake hands again if they see each other again later in the day, but European colleagues may shake hands with each other several times a day. Once a certain level of familiarity and closeness is reached, US American colleagues will likely not even shake hands daily unless engaging in some more formal interaction, but many European colleagues will continue to shake each time they see each other. Some French businesspeople have been known to spend up to thirty minutes a day shaking hands.
Although the Germans and French shake hands more often throughout the day, they typically only give one or two pumps and then hold the shake for a couple seconds before letting go. Brits tend to give three to five pumps, and US Americans tend to give five to seven pumps. This can be humorous to watch at a multinational business event, but it also affects the initial impressions people make of each other. A US American may think that a German is being unfriendly or distant because of his or her single hand pump, while a German may think that a US American is overdoing it with seven.
Contact cultures are cultural groups in which people stand closer together, engage in more eye contact, touch more frequently, and speak more loudly. Italians are especially known for their vibrant nonverbal communication in terms of gestures, volume, eye contact, and touching, which not surprisingly places them in the contact culture category. For example, Italians speak with their hands raised as a way to signal that they are holding the floor for their conversational turn.
If their conversational partner starts to raise his or her hands, the Italian might gently touch the other person and keep on talking. It has been suggested that in order to get a conversational turn, you must physically grab their hands in midair and pull them down. While this would seem very invasive and rude to northern Europeans and US Americans, it is a nonverbal norm in Italian culture and may be the only way to get to contribute to a conversation.
The volume at which we speak is influenced by specific contexts and is more generally influenced by our culture. In European countries like France, England, Sweden, and Germany, it is not uncommon to find restaurants that have small tables very close together. In many cases, two people dining together may be sitting at a table that is actually touching the table of another pair of diners. Most US Americans would consider this a violation of personal space, and Europeans often perceive US Americans to be rude in such contexts because they do not control the volume of their conversations more.
Since personal space is usually more plentiful in the United States, Americans are used to speaking at a level that is considered loud to many cultures that are used to less personal space. I have personally experienced both sides of this while traveling abroad. One time, my friends and I were asked to leave a restaurant in Sweden because another table complained that we were being loud. In this case, even though we were also Americans, we were bothered by the lack of cultural awareness being exhibited by the other Americans at the restaurant.
These examples show how proxemics and vocalics can combine to make for troubling, but hopefully informative, nonverbal intercultural encounters. Cultural norms for personal space vary much more than some other nonverbal communication channels such as facial expressions, which have more universal similarity and recognizability. Countries in South America and southern Europe exhibit characteristics of contact cultures, while countries in northern Europe and Southeast Asia exhibit noncontact cultural characteristics.
Because of the different comfort levels with personal space, a Guatemalan and a Canadian might come away with differing impressions of each other because of proxemic differences. The Guatemalan may feel the Canadian is standoffish, and the Canadian may feel the Guatemalan is pushy or aggressive. The United States and many northern and western European countries have a monochronicorientation to time, meaning time is seen as a commodity that can be budgeted, saved, spent, and wasted. Events are to be scheduled in advance and have set beginning and ending times. Countries like Spain and Mexico have a polychronic orientation to time. People may also miss appointments or deadlines without offering an apology, which would be considered very rude by a person with a monochronic orientation to time.
People from cultures with a monochronic orientation to time are frustrated when people from polychromic cultures cancel appointments or close businesses for family obligations. Conversely, people from polychromic cultures feel that US Americans, for example, follow their schedules at the expense of personal relationships. Nakayama,Intercultural Communication in Contexts, 5th ed. Gender and communication scholar Kathryn Dindia contests the notion that men and women are from different planets and instead uses another analogy.
She says men are from South Dakota and women are from North Dakota. Although the states border each other and are similar in many ways, state pride and in-group identifications lead the people of South Dakota to perceive themselves to be different from the people of North Dakota and vice versa. But if we expand our perspective and take the position of someone from California or Illinois, North Dakotans and South Dakotans are pretty much alike. This comparison is intended to point out that in our daily lives we do experience men and women to be fairly different, but when we look at the differences between men and women compared to the differences between humans and other creatures, men and women are much more similar than different.
For example, in terms of nonverbal communication, men and women all over the world make similar facial expressions and can recognize those facial expressions in one another. We use similar eye contact patterns, gestures, and, within cultural groups, have similar notions of the use of time and space. Although men and women are mostly similar in terms of nonverbal communication, we can gain a better understanding of the role that gender plays in influencing our social realities by exploring some of the channel-specific differences.
Within the category of kinesics, we will discuss some gender differences in how men and women use gestures, posture, eye contact, and facial expressions. This also contributes to the stereotype of the more emotionally aware and nurturing woman, since people tend to like and view as warmer others who show positive emotion. The touch taboo also extends to cross-gender interactions in certain contexts. Men seem to be more comfortable with casual and social interactions that are in the outer subzone, which is 2. This also plays into the stereotypes of women as more intimate and nurturing and men as more distant and less intimate. Men and women also exaggerate biological and socially based sex and gender differences on their own.
Compare and contrast verbal communication and nonverbal communication. Discuss the principles of nonverbal communication. Provide examples of the functions of nonverbal communication. To further define nonverbal communication, we need to distinguish between vocal and verbal aspects of communication. Verbal and nonverbal communication include both vocal and nonvocal elements, andTable 4. Nonvocal elements of verbal communication include the use of unspoken symbols to convey meaning.
Writing and American Sign Language ASL are nonvocal examples of verbal communication and are not considered nonverbal communication. Nonvocal elements of nonverbal communication include body language such as gestures, facial expressions, and eye contact. Gestures are nonvocal and nonverbal since most of them do not refer to a specific word like a written or signed symbol does. Table 4. Nonverbal Communication Is More Involuntary than Verbal There are some instances in which we verbally communicate involuntarily. Nonverbal Communication Is More Credible Although we can rely on verbal communication to fill in the blanks sometimes left by nonverbal expressions, we often put more trust into what people do over what they say.
Functions of Nonverbal Communication A primary function of nonverbal communication is to convey meaning by reinforcing, substituting for, or contradicting verbal communication. Nonverbal Communication Conveys Meaning Nonverbal communication conveys meaning by reinforcing, substituting for, or contradicting verbal communication. Nonverbal Communication Influences Others Nonverbal communication can be used to influence people in a variety of ways, but the most common way is through deception. Nonverbal Communication Affects Relationships To successfully relate to other people, we must possess some skill at encoding and decoding nonverbal communication.
Being expressive and animated with facial expressions, gestures, and voice demonstrates enthusiasm Smiling creates a positive and open climate Making frequent eye contact with students communicates attentiveness and interest Calling students by name reduces perceived psychological distance Making appropriate self-disclosures to students about personal thoughts, feelings, or experiences reduces perceived psychological distance, creates open climate.
Recall a teacher you have had that exhibited effective immediacy behaviors. Make a column for each teacher and note examples of specific behaviors of each. Discuss your list with a classmate and compare and contrast your lists. Think about the teachers that you listed in the previous question. Discuss how their behaviors affected your learning and your relationship. How much should immediacy behaviors, relative to other characteristics such as professionalism, experience, training, and content knowledge, factor into the evaluation of teachers by their students, peers, andsupervisors?
Key Takeaways Nonverbal communication is a process of generating meaning using behavior other than words. Nonverbal communication includes vocal elements, which is referred to as paralanguage and includes pitch, volume, and rate, and nonvocal elements, which are usually referred to as body language and includes gestures, facial expressions, and eye contact, among other things. Although verbal communication and nonverbal communication work side by side as part of a larger language system, there are some important differences between the two.
Nonverbal communication operates on the following principles: nonverbal communication typically conveys more meaning than verbal communication, nonverbal communication is more involuntary than verbal communication, nonverbal communication is often more ambiguous than verbal communication, and nonverbal communication is often more credible than verbal communication. Nonverbal communication serves several functions. Nonverbal communication affects verbal communication in that it can complement, reinforce, substitute, or contradict verbal messages.
Nonverbal communication influences others, as it is a key component of deception and can be used to assert dominance or to engage in compliance gaining. Nonverbal communication regulates conversational flow, as it provides important cues that signal the beginning and end of conversational turns and facilitates the beginning and end of an interaction. Nonverbal communication affects relationships, as it is a primary means through which we communicate emotions, establish social bonds, and engage in relational maintenance. Nonverbal communication expresses our identities, as who we are is conveyed through the way we set up our living and working spaces, the clothes we wear, our personal presentation, and the tones in our voices.
Exercises Getting integrated: To better understand nonverbal communication, try to think of an example to illustrate each of the four principles discussed in the chapter. Be integrative in your approach by including at least one example from an academic, professional, civic, and personal context. If I wanted to kill Americans…a two chemical approach with one in a vax would be my method. A month ago my SF area county experienced a seven day running average of 1 Covid death per day per million.
My Texas county was the same. Today my Texas home county has a death rate four times greater than SF area. Texas dumb.. California smart? What will be interesting is how these numbers look come Winter and natural immunity kicks in to a greater extent in Texas. Steven Crowder on Alex Jones…. But in Texas, everyone is now hunkering down indoors, where the air conditioning is. This creates a similar phenomenon of the winter flu season in the northern states, where everyone hunkers down indoors, where the warmth is. In the SF area, the outdoor weather is nice, and those venturing indoors are punished by being required to wear asthma-simulation masks. Outdoor living is the healthy alternative to the face diaper.
Meanwhile in King County the county Seattle is in the left accelerates its push to a two-tiered society:. The mandate will also apply to outdoor events with more than people in attendance. Asked whether the mandate would isolate those who are unvaccinated, Durkan Seattle mayor said that would be their choice. There has been an ongoing scheme among landlords and landowners to rid themselves of tenants to sell to big financial institutions for ultra big coin. Landlords will also cause their property to fall into rat-infested broken elevators and intense disrepair to motivate tenants to move out. Or landlords can do what the grasping greed-saturated former NYC mayor and billionaire Michael Bloomberg had done previously to unsuspecting tenants: simply kick out the residents on some bogus incident and grab the land and property for his elitist affiliates.
Or as the article points out, there were those who refused to serve Gay men in the 80s because of the health risk of AIDS. Oh the irony…. Confirmed by the CDC. In light of the Delta variant and updated CDC recommendations, we strongly encourage all individuals, including those who are vaccinated, to wear a mask when in our stores and facilities. We will continue to abide by all state and local mandates and encourage all Americans to get vaccinated, including our associates. The government is offering a substantial bonus to get that number higher. Despite how many people have died so far. Most of the people who test positive recently did so just after the shot. Japan thinks so The new CDC guidelines specify that if you die before 14 days after receiving your second dose, you are not considered vaccinated.
They are going back through former Deaths to eliminate a considerable amount of them that died immediately after vaccination. Desantis is going directly to the source to get the monoclonal antibodies. Pretty offensive language. Okay, when is enough enough? Follow the Executive Orders because we know what is best for you, except they are taking advice from people with an agenda of their own. There is no honest debate anymore, you are wrong and I am right. I take away all sources of Vitamin C, you get scurvy. If you give a very large number of people a drug to treat an illness and that illness disappears from your society, then you are faced with a choice.
Do I call it black magic? Or do I acknowledge the results and try to determine cause and effect while also treating patients. Anything less is unethical and tantamount to murder by omission. And the truth that you seek will once again be apparent to all American. Only that truth will be a disturbing truth. All Americans exist in a kind of fantasy and all of this dishonesty, lies, fraud and corruption in their minds exists somewhere else and not in their world. Well the real world is being delivered to America and those Americans who live in that fantasy world they are so comfortably, albeit temporarily immersed in. Sorry, but I actually support this. Q: What about those who lived within the property for 10 years before Covid?
Have them removed from their apartments by force? This is the slippery slope you are proposing. And what about those who already have had the virus and survived it and have a more robust immunity to the virus than those with the vaccine who live in the apartment complex? Fact: Today, if you were double vaccinated in Israel you are 6. Did you know that? Your not buying goods or services from a store or business, you are contracting for a place to live and raise your family. A place to live in safety and security. This is fundamental to being an American. What you are all proposing is a moment in time where those in the apartment complex will feel justified in causing violence and mayham against their fellow renters.
What has IMO the false sense of security the exclusive promotion of the several mRNA and waning vaccines accomplished? The left guards are given power over the right prisoners. They are given this power by not being stopped when they do something small and petty against the right. The more they are allowed to do the more they will try to do. Expect things to get worse. They are trying to use the law against their opponents as a form of justification that they are correct and the right is wrong. This is not just with Covid but with everything. Black vs white left vs right. Democrat vs republican. Male vs female. Except that the bakery was perfectly willing to bake the cake.Marco presents Ace with a decision, if he would take Summary Of The Book Warmth Behind The Mask name on his back. Rey teaser poster, posted by Daisy Ridley on Roles Of Daylight In Architecture media. A louder voice is usually thought of as more intense, although a soft voice Summary Of The Book Warmth Behind The Mask with a certain tone and facial expression can be just as intense. This is Summary Of The Book Warmth Behind The Mask I have been talking about for the many years that we have spoken about Summary Of The Book Warmth Behind The Mask things, and now you are getting? Captain Canady orders that the dreadnought's auto cannons be recharged so Summary Of The Book Warmth Behind The Mask they can target the Resistance cruisers. Summary Of The Book Warmth Behind The Mask Holdo watches in horror. Such deviations the maids jean genet lead people to misinterpret Don Marquis Why Abortion Is Immoral Analysis or romantic interest or feel uncomfortable.