✎✎✎ Civil Rights In The 1960s
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The 1964 Civil Rights Bill Explained in 8 Minutes
Gains in civil rights varied for minorities during this era. Hispanics lost ground as they experienced mass deportations of legal and illegal immigrants in Operation Wetback, educational segregation in Southwest schools, and police brutality cases that rocked Los Angeles. In contrast, the re-emergence of a women's rights movement in the s resulted in significant civil rights gains: adoption of the Equal Pay Act, the prohibition of inequality based on gender in the Civil Rights Act of , and the breaching of barriers to employment for women. Asian Americans likewise experienced gains and losses in civil rights. The McCarran-Walter Act of permitted Japanese immigrants to become citizens but contained restrictive quotas based on race and country of origin.
Chinese Americans, especially during the McCarthy era, found themselves targets of suspicion and possible deportation following the Communist takeover of China. During this period, however, Asian Americans began their own social, cultural, and political initiatives to challenge the status quo and advance their civil rights. During this time, the homophile movement grew and changed direction. Gays and lesbians in the "bar culture" engaged in various forms of resistance to police repression by insisting on their right to gather in public.
In cities across the country, for example, working-class lesbian bars nurtured a world where women made public their same-sex desire. This cultural resistance, along with the formal political efforts of homophile organizations, laid the basis for the contemporary gay and lesbian movement. African American mass demonstrations, televised racial violence, and the federally enforced desegregation of higher education institutions, as well as the black passive resistance movement of the early s led to adoption of the landmark Civil Rights Act of Considered the most comprehensive civil rights legislation in U.
It prohibited tactics to limit voting; guaranteed racial and religious minorities equal access to public accommodations; outlawed job discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin; continued the U. First proposed by President John F. In subsequent years, Congress expanded the act and passed additional civil rights legislation such as the Voting Rights Act of Following the Civil War , a trio of constitutional amendments abolished slavery the 13 Amendment , made the formerly enslaved people citizens 14 Amendment and gave all men the right to vote regardless of race 15 Amendment.
Nonetheless, many states—particularly in the South—used poll taxes, literacy tests and other measures to keep their African American citizens essentially disenfranchised. For decades after Reconstruction , the U. Congress did not pass a single civil rights act. Finally, in , it established a civil rights section of the Justice Department, along with a Commission on Civil Rights to investigate discriminatory conditions.
Three years later, Congress provided for court-appointed referees to help Black people register to vote. Both of these bills were strongly watered down to overcome southern resistance. When John F. Kennedy entered the White House in , he initially delayed supporting new anti-discrimination measures. But with protests springing up throughout the South—including one in Birmingham, Alabama , where police brutally suppressed nonviolent demonstrators with dogs, clubs and high-pressure fire hoses—Kennedy decided to act. Johnson immediately took up the cause.
During debate on the floor of the U. In a mischievous attempt to sabotage the bill, a Virginia segregationist introduced an amendment to ban employment discrimination against women. That one passed, whereas over other hostile amendments were defeated. In the end, the House approved the bill with bipartisan support by a vote of The bill then moved to the U. Senate , where southern and border state Democrats staged a day filibuster—among the longest in U. Having broken the filibuster, the Senate voted in favor of the bill, and Johnson signed it into law on July 2, Under the Civil Rights Act of , segregation on the grounds of race, religion or national origin was banned at all places of public accommodation, including courthouses, parks, restaurants, theaters, sports arenas and hotels.
No longer could Black people and other minorities be denied service simply based on the color of their skin. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act barred race, religious, national origin and gender discrimination by employers and labor unions, and created an Equal Employment Opportunity Commission with the power to file lawsuits on behalf of aggrieved workers. Additionally, the act forbade the use of federal funds for any discriminatory program, authorized the Office of Education now the Department of Education to assist with school desegregation, gave extra clout to the Commission on Civil Rights and prohibited the unequal application of voting requirements.
Civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. The Civil Rights Act was later expanded to bring disabled Americans, the elderly and women in collegiate athletics under its umbrella. It also paved the way for two major follow-up laws: the Voting Rights Act of , which prohibited literacy tests and other discriminatory voting practices, and the Fair Housing Act of , which banned discrimination in the sale, rental and financing of property.
Though the struggle against racism would continue, legal segregation had been brought to its knees in the United States. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. The civil rights movement was a struggle for social justice that took place mainly during the s and s for Black Americans to gain equal rights under the law in the United States. Johnson, aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote as guaranteed under the 15th Amendment to the U.Tools My Leadership Philosophy Essay Examples Index. Eisenhower signed the first Civil Rights In The 1960s rights bill since Reconstruction. By Mazlan A. Martin Luther King Civil Rights In The 1960s.