🔥🔥🔥 Patrick Henrys Contribution To The American Revolution

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Patrick Henrys Contribution To The American Revolution

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Patrick Henry, Orator of the Revolution

In February , the king's finance minister, Charles Alexandre de Calonne , convened an Assembly of Notables , a group of nobles, clergy, bourgeoisie , and bureaucrats selected in order to bypass the local parliaments. This group was asked to approve a new land tax that would, for the first time, include a tax on the property of nobles and clergy. While the Third Estate demanded and was granted "double representation" so as to balance the First and Second Estate, voting was to occur "by orders" — votes of the Third Estate were to be weighted — effectively canceling double representation.

This eventually led to the Third Estate breaking away from the Estates-General and, joined by members of the other estates, proclaiming the creation of the National Assembly , an assembly not of the Estates but of "the People. After finding the door to their chamber locked and guarded, the Assembly met nearby on a tennis court and pledged the Tennis Court Oath on 20 June , binding them "never to separate, and to meet wherever circumstances demand, until the constitution of the kingdom is established and affirmed on solid foundations. After the king fired his finance minister, Jacques Necker , for giving his support and guidance to the Third Estate, worries surfaced that the legitimacy of the newly formed National Assembly might be threatened by royalists.

Paris was soon consumed with riots and widespread looting. Because the royal leadership essentially abandoned the city, the mobs soon had the support of the French Guard, including arms and trained soldiers. On 14 July , the insurgents set their eyes on the large weapons and ammunition cache inside the Bastille fortress, which also served as a symbol of royal tyranny. Insurgents seized the Bastille prison , killing the governor and several of his guards. Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette , a hero of the American War of Independence , on 15 July took command of the National Guard, and the king on 17 July accepted to wear the two-colour cockade blue and red , later adapted into the tricolour cockade , as the new symbol of revolutionary France.

Although peace was made, several nobles did not regard the new order as acceptable and emigrated in order to push the neighboring, aristocratic kingdoms to war against the new regime. The state was now struck for several weeks in July and August by violence against aristocracy, also called ' the Great Fear '. On 4 and 11 August , the National Constituent Assembly abolished privileges and feudalism , sweeping away personal serfdom , [54] exclusive hunting rights and other seigneurial rights of the Second Estate nobility. The tithe was also abolished which had been the main source of income for many clergymen. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was adopted by the National Assembly on 27 August , [56] as a first step in their effort to write a constitution.

Considered to be a precursor to modern international rights instruments and using the U. Declaration of Independence as a model, it defined a set of individual rights and collective rights of all of the estates as one. Influenced by the doctrine of natural rights, these rights were deemed universal and valid in all times and places, pertaining to human nature itself. The Assembly also replaced France's historic provinces with eighty-three departments, uniformly administered and approximately equal to one another in extent and population.

When a mob from Paris attacked the royal palace at Versailles in October seeking redress for their severe poverty, the royal family was forced to move to the Tuileries Palace in Paris. In November '89, the Assembly decided to nationalize and sell all church property, [55] thus in part addressing the financial crisis. This law reorganized the French Catholic Church , arranged that henceforth the salaries of the priests would be paid by the state, [55] abolished the Church's authority to levy a tax on crops and again cancelled some privileges for the clergy. In October a group of 30 bishops wrote a declaration saying they could not accept the law, and this fueled civilian opposition against it. The Assembly then in late November decreed that all clergy should take an oath of loyalty to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy.

In June , the royal family secretly fled Paris in disguise for Varennes near France's northeastern border in order to seek royalist support the king believed he could trust, but they were soon discovered en route. They were brought back to Paris, after which they were essentially kept under house arrest at the Tuileries. In August , Emperor Leopold II of Austria and King Frederick William II of Prussia in the Declaration of Pillnitz declared their intention to bring the French king in a position "to consolidate the basis of a monarchical government", and that they were preparing their own troops for action. With most of the Assembly still favoring a constitutional monarchy rather than a republic, the various groups reached a compromise. Under the Constitution of 3 September , France would function as a constitutional monarchy with Louis XVI as little more than a figurehead.

The King had to share power with the elected Legislative Assembly , although he still retained his royal veto and the ability to select ministers. He had perforce to swear an oath to the constitution, and a decree declared that retracting the oath, heading an army for the purpose of making war upon the nation or permitting anyone to do so in his name would amount to de facto abdication.

On 1 October , the Legislative Assembly was formed, elected by those 4 million men — out of a population of 25 million — who paid a certain minimum amount of taxes. In response to the threat of war of August from Austria and Prussia, leaders of the Assembly saw such a war as a means to strengthen support for their revolutionary government, and the French people as well as the Assembly thought that they would win a war against Austria and Prussia. On 20 April , France declared war on Austria. Nevertheless, in the summer of , all of Paris was against the king, and hoped that the Assembly would depose the king, but the Assembly hesitated.

At dawn of 10 August , a large, angry crowd of Parisians and soldiers from all over France marched on the Tuileries Palace where the king resided. After am, the Assembly 'temporarily relieved the king from his task'. On 2, 3 and 4 September , some three hundred volunteers and supporters of the revolution, infuriated by Verdun being captured by the Prussian enemy , and rumours that the foreign enemy were conspiring with the incarcerated prisoners in Paris, raided the Parisian prisons. Jean-Paul Marat had called for preemptive action and between 1, and 1, prisoners were murdered within 20 hours September Massacres , many of them Catholic nonjuring priests but also aristocrats, forgers and common criminals. In an open letter on 3 September the radical Marat incited the rest of France to follow the Parisian example.

Danton and Robespierre kept a low profile in regard to the murder orgy. From the start the Convention suffered from the bitter division between a group around Robespierre, Danton and Marat referred to as ' Montagnards ' or ' Jacobins ' or 'left' and a group referred to as ' Girondins ' or 'right'. But the majority of the representatives, referred to as ' la Plaine ', were member of neither of those two antagonistic groups and managed to preserve some speed in the convention's debates. Marat was quickly acquitted but the incident further acerbated the ' Girondins ' versus ' Montagnards ' party strife in the convention.

While that committee consisted only of members from la Plaine and the Girondins, the anger of the sans-culottes was directed towards the Girondins. The convention's President Isnard, a Girondin, answered them: "Members of la Commune … If by your incessant rebellions something befalls to the representatives of the nation, I declare, in the name of France, that Paris will be totally obliterated". On 29 May , in Lyon an uprising overthrew a group of Montagnards ruling the city; Marseille, Toulon and more cities saw similar events. On 2 June , the convention's session in Tuileries Palace —since early May their venue—not for the first time degenerated into chaos and pandemonium.

This time crowds of people including 80, armed soldiers swarmed in and around the palace. Incessant screaming from the public galleries, always in favour of the Montagnards, suggested that all of Paris was against the Girondins, which was not really the case. Petitions circulated, indicting and condemning 22 Girondins. A decree was adopted that day by the convention, after much tumultuous debate, expelling 22 leading Girondins from the convention. Late that night, indeed dozens of Girondins had resigned and left the convention. By the summer of , most French departments in one way or another opposed the central Paris government, and in many cases ' Girondins ', fled from Paris after 2 June, led those revolts. In August—September , militants urged the convention to do more to quell the counter-revolution.

A delegation of the Commune Paris city council suggested to form revolutionary armies to arrest hoarders and conspirators. Criteria for bringing someone before the Revolutionary Tribunal , created March , had always been vast and vague. A week later again 19 politicians. This hushed the Convention deputies: if henceforth they disagreed with Robespierre they hardly dared to speak out. The frequency of guillotine executions in Paris now rose from on average three a day to an average of 29 a day. Meanwhile, France's external wars were going well, with victories over Austrian and British troops in May and June opening up Belgium for French conquest.

On 29 June , three colleagues of Robespierre at the Committee called him a dictator in his face — Robespierre baffled left the meeting. This encouraged other Convention members to also defy Robespierre. On 26 July, a long and vague speech of Robespierre wasn't met with thunderous applause as usual but with hostility; some deputies yelled that Robespierre should have the courage to say which deputies he deemed necessary to be killed next, which Robespierre refused to do. Finally, even Robespierre's own voice failed on him: it faltered at his last attempt to beg permission to speak. A decree was adopted to arrest Robespierre , Saint-Just and Couthon.

After July , most civilians henceforth ignored the Republican calendar and returned to the traditional seven-day weeks. The government in a law of 21 February set steps of return to freedom of religion and reconciliation with the since refractory Catholic priests, but any religious signs outside churches or private homes, such as crosses, clerical garb, bell ringing, remained prohibited. When the people's enthusiasm for attending church grew to unexpected levels the government backed out and in October again, like in , required all priests to swear oaths on the Republic. In the very cold winter of —95, with the French army demanding more and more bread, same was getting scarce in Paris as was wood to keep houses warm, and in an echo of the October March on Versailles , on 1 April 12 Germinal III a mostly female crowd marched on the Convention calling for bread.

But no Convention member sympathized, they just told the women to return home. Again in May a crowd of 20, men and 40, women invaded the convention and even killed a deputy in the halls, but again they failed to make the Convention take notice of the needs of the lower classes. Instead, the Convention banned women from all political assemblies, and deputies who had solidarized with this insurrection were sentenced to death: such allegiance between parliament and street fighting was no longer tolerated.

Late , France conquered present-day Belgium. In October , the Republic was reorganised, replacing the one-chamber parliament the National Convention by a bi-cameral system: the first chamber called the ' Council of ' initiating the laws, the second the ' Council of Elders ' reviewing and approving or not the passed laws. Each year, one-third of the chambers was to be renewed. The executive power lay with five directors — hence the name ' Directory ' for this form of government — with a five-year mandate, each year one of them being replaced. French armies in advanced into Germany, Austria and Italy. Parliamentary elections in the spring of resulted in considerable gains for the royalists.

Not only citizens opposed and even mocked such decrees, also local government officials refused to enforce such laws. In , when the French armies abroad experienced some setbacks , the newly chosen director Sieyes considered a new overhaul necessary for the Directory's form of government because in his opinion it needed a stronger executive. Five directors then ruled France. This was Napoleon 's idea and the Directoire agreed to the plan in order to send the popular general away from the mainland. Napoleon defeated the Ottoman forces during the Battle of the Pyramids 21 July and sent hundreds of scientists and linguists out to thoroughly explore modern and ancient Egypt.

Only a few weeks later the British fleet under Admiral Horatio Nelson unexpectedly destroyed the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile 1—3 August Napoleon planned to move into Syria but was defeated at the Siege of Acre and he returned to France without his army, which surrendered. The Directoire was threatened by the Second Coalition — Royalists and their allies still dreamed of restoring the monarchy to power, while the Prussian and Austrian crowns did not accept their territorial losses during the previous war. Napoleon then seized power through a coup and established the Consulate in The Austrian army was defeated at the Battle of Marengo and again at the Battle of Hohenlinden While at sea the French had some success at Boulogne but Nelson's Royal Navy destroyed an anchored Danish and Norwegian fleet at the Battle of Copenhagen because the Scandinavian kingdoms were against the British blockade of France.

A brief interlude of peace ensued in —3, during which Napoleon sold French Louisiana to the United States because it was indefensible. The policies of the Revolution were reversed, except the Church did not get its lands back. Bishops and clergy were to receive state salaries, and the government would pay for the building and maintenance of churches. Napoleon's rule was constitutional, and although autocratic, it was much more advanced than traditional European monarchies of the time. The proclamation of the French Empire was met by the Third Coalition.

The French army achieved a resounding victory at Ulm 16—19 October , where an entire Austrian army was captured. A Franco-Spanish fleet was defeated at Trafalgar 21 October and all plans to invade Britain were then made impossible. Despite this naval defeat, it was on the ground that this war would be won; Napoleon inflicted on the Austrian and Russian Empires one of their greatest defeats at Austerlitz also known as the "Battle of the Three Emperors" on 2 December , destroying the Third Coalition.

Prussia joined Britain and Russia, thus forming the Fourth Coalition. Although the Coalition was joined by other allies, the French Empire was also not alone since it now had a complex network of allies and subject states. Peace was dictated in the Treaties of Tilsit , in which Russia had to join the Continental System , and Prussia handed half of its territories to France. In order to ruin the British economy, Napoleon set up the Continental System in , and tried to prevent merchants across Europe from trading with British. The large amount of smuggling frustrated Napoleon, and did more harm to his economy than to his enemies. Freed from his obligation in the east, Napoleon then went back to the west, as the French Empire was still at war with Britain.

Only two countries remained neutral in the war: Sweden and Portugal, and Napoleon then looked toward the latter. French armies entered Spain in order to attack Portugal, but then seized Spanish fortresses and took over the kingdom by surprise. Britain sent a short-lived ground support force to Portugal, and French forces evacuated Portugal as defined in the Convention of Sintra following the Allied victory at Vimeiro 21 August France only controlled Catalonia and Navarre and could have been definitely expelled from the Iberian peninsula had the Spanish armies attacked again, but the Spanish did not.

Another French attack was launched on Spain, led by Napoleon himself, and was described as "an avalanche of fire and steel. Although not as decisive as the previous Austrian defeats, the peace treaty in October stripped Austria of a large amount of territories, reducing it even more. In war broke out with Russia, engaging Napoleon in the disastrous French invasion of Russia Napoleon assembled the largest army Europe had ever seen, including troops from all subject states, to invade Russia, which had just left the continental system and was gathering an army on the Polish frontier.

Although there still were battles, the Napoleonic army left Russia in late annihilated, most of all by the Russian winter, exhaustion, and scorched earth warfare. Since the Spanish guerrillas seemed to be uncontrollable, the French troops eventually evacuated Spain. Since France had been defeated on these two fronts, states that had been conquered and controlled by Napoleon saw a good opportunity to strike back. The Sixth Coalition was formed under British leadership. Napoleon was largely defeated in the Battle of the Nations outside Leipzig in October , his forces heavily outnumbered by the Allied coalition armies and was overwhelmed by much larger armies during the Six Days Campaign February , although, the Six Days Campaign is often considered a tactical masterpiece because the allies suffered much higher casualties.

Napoleon abdicated on 6 April , and was exiled to Elba. The conservative Congress of Vienna reversed the political changes that had occurred during the wars. Napoleon suddenly returned, seized control of France, raised an army, and marched on his enemies in the Hundred Days. It ended with his final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo in , and his exile to St. Helena, a remote island in the South Atlantic Ocean. However many of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic reforms were kept in place. Napoleon centralized power in Paris, with all the provinces governed by all-powerful prefects whom he selected. Religion had been a major issue during the Revolution, and Napoleon resolved most of the outstanding problems.

Thereby he moved the clergy and large numbers of devout Catholics from hostility to the government to support for him. The Catholic system was reestablished by the Concordat of signed with Pope Pius VII , so that church life returned to normal; the church lands were not restored, but the Jesuits were allowed back in and the bitter fights between the government and Church ended.

Protestant, Jews and atheists were tolerated. The French taxation system had collapsed in the s. In the s the government seized and sold church lands and lands of exiles aristocrats. Napoleon instituted a modern, efficient tax system that guaranteed a steady flow of revenues and made long-term financing possible. Napoleon kept the system of conscription that had been created in the s, so that every young man served in the army, which could be rapidly expanded even as it was based on a core of careerists and talented officers.

Before the Revolution the aristocracy formed the officer corps. Now promotion was by merit and achievement—every private carried a marshal's baton, it was said. The modern era of French education began in the s. The Revolution in the s abolished the traditional universities. Of permanent importance was the Napoleonic Code created by eminent jurists under Napoleon's supervision. Praised for its Gallic clarity, it spread rapidly throughout Europe and the world in general, and marked the end of feudalism and the liberation of serfs where it took effect. It discarded the old right of primogeniture where only the eldest son inherited and required that inheritances be divided equally among all the children.

The court system was standardized; all judges were appointed by the national government in Paris. Every head of state from to spent part of his life in exile. Every regime was the target of assassination attempts of a frequency that put Spanish and Russian politics in the shade. Even in peaceful times governments changed every few months. In less peaceful times, political deaths, imprisonments and deportations are literally incalculable. France was no longer the dominant power it had been before , but it played a major role in European economics, culture, diplomacy and military affairs. The Bourbons were restored, but left a weak record and one branch was overthrown in and the other branch in as Napoleon's nephew was elected president.

He made himself emperor as Napoleon III , but was overthrown when he was defeated and captured by Prussians in an war that humiliated France and made the new nation of Germany dominant in the continent. The Third Republic was established, but the possibility of a return to monarchy remained into the s. The French built up an empire, especially in Africa and Indochina. The economy was strong, with a good railway system. The arrival of the Rothschild banking family of France in guaranteed the role of Paris alongside London as a major center of international finance. The French Revolution and Napoleonic eras brought a series of major changes to France which the Bourbon restoration did not reverse. First of all, France became highly centralized, with all decisions made in Paris.

The political geography was completely reorganized and made uniform. Each department had the identical administrative structure, and was tightly controlled by a prefect appointed by Paris. The complex multiple overlapping legal jurisdictions of the old regime had all been abolished, and there was now one standardized legal code, administered by judges appointed by Paris, and supported by police under national control.

Education was centralized, with the Grand Master of the University of France controlling every element of the entire educational system from Paris. Newly technical universities were opened in Paris which to this day have a critical role in training the elite. Conservatism was bitterly split into the old aristocracy that returned, and the new elites that arose after The old aristocracy was eager to regain its land but felt no loyalty to the new regime.

The new elite — the "noblesse d'empire" — ridiculed the other group as an outdated remnant of a discredited regime that had led the nation to disaster. Both groups shared a fear of social disorder, but the level of distrust as well as the cultural differences were too great and the monarchy too inconsistent in its policies for political cooperation to be possible. The old aristocracy had returned, and recovered much of the land they owned directly. However they completely lost all their old seigneurial rights to the rest of the farmland, and the peasants no longer were under their control. The old aristocracy had dallied with the ideas of the Enlightenment and rationalism.

Now the aristocracy was much more conservative, and much more supportive of the Catholic Church. For the best jobs meritocracy was the new policy, and aristocrats had to compete directly with the growing business and professional class. Anti-clerical sentiment became much stronger than ever before, but was now based in certain elements of the middle class and indeed the peasantry as well. In France, as in most of Europe, the sum total of wealth was concentrated. The richest 10 percent of families owned between 80 and 90 percent of the wealth from to Their share then fell to about 60 percent, where it remained into the 21st century.

The share of the top one percent of the population grew from 45 percent in to 60 percent in , then fell steadily to 20 percent in to the present. The " families" controlled much of the nation's wealth after The "" is based on the policy that of the 40, shareholders of the Bank of France , only were allowed to attend the annual meeting and they cast all the votes.

The great masses of the French people were peasants in the countryside, or impoverished workers in the cities. They gained new rights, and a new sense of possibilities. Although relieved of many of the old burdens, controls, and taxes, the peasantry was still highly traditional in its social and economic behavior. Many eagerly took on mortgages to buy as much land as possible for their children, so debt was an important factor in their calculations. The working class in the cities was a small element, and had been freed of many restrictions imposed by medieval guilds.

However France was very slow to industrialize in the sense of large factories using modern machinery , and much of the work remained drudgery without machinery or technology to help. This provided a good basis for small-scale expensive luxury crafts that attracted an international upscale market. France was still localized, especially in terms of language, but now there was an emerging French nationalism that showed its national pride in the Army, and foreign affairs. The Catholic Church lost all its lands and buildings during the Revolution, and these were sold off or came under the control of local governments. The bishop still ruled his diocese which was aligned with the new department boundaries , but could only communicate with the pope through the government in Paris.

Bishops, priests, nuns and other religious people were paid salaries by the state. All the old religious rites and ceremonies were retained, and the government maintained the religious buildings. The Church was allowed to operate its own seminaries and to some extent local schools as well, although this became a central political issue into the 20th century. Bishops were much less powerful than before, and had no political voice. However, the Catholic Church reinvented itself and put a new emphasis on personal religiosity that gave it a hold on the psychology of the faithful.

France remained basically Catholic. The census counted 36 million people, of whom The Revolution failed to destroy the Catholic Church, and Napoleon's concordat of restored its status. The return of the Bourbons in brought back many rich nobles and landowners who supported the Church, seeing it as a bastion of conservatism and monarchism. However the monasteries with their vast land holdings and political power were gone; much of the land had been sold to urban entrepreneurs who lacked historic connections to the land and the peasants.

Few new priests were trained in the — period, and many left the church. The result was that the number of parish clergy plunged from 60, in to 25, in , many of them elderly. Entire regions, especially around Paris, were left with few priests. On the other hand, some traditional regions held fast to the faith, led by local nobles and historic families. The comeback was very slow in the larger cities and industrial areas. With systematic missionary work and a new emphasis on liturgy and devotions to the Virgin Mary, plus support from Napoleon III, there was a comeback. In there were 56, priests, representing a much younger and more dynamic force in the villages and towns, with a thick network of schools, charities and lay organizations.

French economic history since its lateth century Revolution was tied to three major events and trends: the Napoleonic Era, the competition with Britain and its other neighbors in regards to 'industrialization', and the 'total wars' of the lateth and early 20th centuries. Quantitative analysis of output data shows the French per capita growth rates were slightly smaller than Britain. However the British population tripled in size, while France grew by only third—so the overall British economy grew much faster.

The ups and downs of French per capita economic growth in — For the — era, the growth rates for 12 similar advanced countries — 10 in Europe plus the United States and Canada — show that in terms of per capita growth, France was about average. The 12 countries averaged 2. The domestic system and handicraft production long persisted, while big modern factories were for long exceptional.

On the whole, the qualitative lag between the British and French economy…persisted during the whole period under consideration, and later on a similar lag developed between France and some other countries—Belgium, Germany, the United States. France did not succeed in catching up with Britain, but was overtaken by several of her rivals. This period of time is called the Bourbon Restoration and was marked by conflicts between reactionary Ultra-royalists , who wanted to restore the pre system of absolute monarchy, and liberals, who wanted to strengthen constitutional monarchy. On becoming king, Louis issued a constitution known as the Charter which preserved many of the liberties won during the French Revolution and provided for a parliament composed of an elected Chamber of Deputies and a Chamber of Peers that was nominated by the king.

After two decades of war and revolution, the restoration brought peace and quiet, and general prosperity. France had recovered from the strain and disorganization, the wars, the killings, and the horrors of two decades of disruption. It was at peace throughout the period. It paid a large war indemnity to the winners, but managed to finance that without distress; the occupation soldiers left peacefully. Population increased by 3 million, and prosperity was strong from to , with the depression of caused by bad harvests. The national credit was strong, there was significant increase in public wealth, and the national budget showed a surplus every year. In the private sector, banking grew dramatically, making Paris a world center for finance, along with London.

The Rothschild family was world-famous, with the French branch led by James Mayer de Rothschild — The communication system was improved, as roads were upgraded, canals were lengthened, and steamboat traffic became common. Industrialization was delayed in comparison to Britain and Belgium. The railway system had yet to make an appearance. Industry was heavily protected with tariffs, so there was little demand for entrepreneurship or innovation. Culture flourished with the new romantic impulses. Oratory was highly regarded, and debates were very high standard.

She made important contributions to political sociology, and the sociology of literature. Music, theater, science, and philosophy all flourished. Overall, the Bourbon government's handling of foreign affairs was successful. France kept a low profile, and Europe forgot of its animosities. Louis and Charles had little interest in foreign affairs, so France played only minor roles. Its army helped restore the Spanish monarch in It helped the other powers deal with Greece and Turkey. King Charles X , an ultra reactionary, mistakenly thought that foreign glory would cover domestic frustration, so he made an all-out effort to conquer Algiers in He sent a massive force of 38, soldiers and horses carried by warships and merchant ships.

The expedition was a dramatic military success in only three weeks. The episode launched the second French colonial empire, but it did not provide desperately needed political support for the King at home. Charles X repeatedly exacerbated internal tensions, and tried to neutralize his enemies with repressive measures. He depended too heavily upon his inept chief minister Polignac. Repression failed and a quick sudden revolution forced Charles into exile for the third time. Protest against the absolute monarchy was in the air.

The elections of deputies to 16 May had gone very badly for King Charles X. It is traditionally regarded as a rising of the bourgeoisie against the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons. Working behind the scenes on behalf of the bourgeois propertied interests was Louis Adolphe Thiers. Louis-Philippe's " July Monarchy " — was dominated by the haute bourgeoisie high bourgeoisie of bankers, financiers, industrialists and merchants. During the reign of the July Monarchy, the Romantic Era was starting to bloom. On 22 November in Lyon the second largest city in France the silk workers revolted and took over the town hall in protest of recent salary reductions and working conditions.

This was one of the first instances of a workers revolt in the entire world. Because of the constant threats to the throne, the July Monarchy began to rule with a stronger and stronger hand. Soon political meetings were outlawed. However, "banquets" were still legal and all through , there was a nationwide campaign of republican banquets demanding more democracy. The climaxing banquet was scheduled for 22 February in Paris but the government banned it.

In response citizens of all classes poured out onto the streets of Paris in a revolt against the July Monarchy. Demands were made for abdication of "Citizen King" Louis-Philippe and for establishment of a representative democracy in France. Alphonse Marie Louis de Lamartine , who had been a leader of the moderate republicans in France during the s, became the Minister of Foreign Affairs and in effect the premier in the new Provisional government. In reality Lamartine was the virtual head of government in Frustration among the laboring classes arose when the Constituent Assembly did not address the concerns of the workers.

Strikes and worker demonstrations became more common as the workers gave vent to these frustrations. These demonstrations reached a climax when on 15 May , workers from the secret societies broke out in armed uprising against the anti-labor and anti-democratic policies being pursued by the Constituent Assembly and the Provisional Government. Fearful of a total breakdown of law and order, the Provisional Government invited General Louis Eugene Cavaignac back from Algeria, in June , to put down the workers' armed revolt.

On 10 December , Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected president by a landslide. His support came from a wide section of the French public. Various classes of French society voted for Louis Napoleon for very different and often contradictory reasons. Because of the ambiguity surrounding Louis Napoleon's political positions, his agenda as president was very much in doubt. For prime minister, he selected Odilon Barrot , an unobjectionable middle-road parliamentarian who had led the "loyal opposition" under Louis Philippe. Other appointees represented various royalist factions. The Pope had been forced out of Rome as part of the Revolutions of , and Louis Napoleon sent a 14,man expeditionary force of troops to the Papal State under General Nicolas Charles Victor Oudinot to restore him.

In late April , it was defeated and pushed back from Rome by Giuseppe Garibaldi 's volunteer corps, but then it recovered and recaptured Rome. In June , demonstrations against the government broke out and were suppressed. The leaders, including prominent politicians, were arrested. The government banned several democratic and socialist newspapers in France; the editors were arrested.

Karl Marx was at risk, so in August he moved to London. The government sought ways to balance its budget and reduce its debts. Rule of law means each branch of government sticks to its own knitting. Each does the tasks expressly assigned it under the Constitution and no more. And it means leaving things to the states that ought be left to the states. Congress negotiates tough issues, compromises where at all possible, acts in good faith, and enacts laws actually getting things done for a change.

The executive enforces the laws as written, surely and swiftly. The executive insists Congress authorize in an act of war any extra territorial foreign combat missions wherever possible. It enforces laws as written. The judiciary refuses to legislate from the bench. We will then review as appropriate the new law to ensure Congress acted within its legislative authority, as is our duty. For citizens, it means pushing Congress to get rid of dated or useless laws or regulations. It means understanding the fewer the laws there are, the freer we are. It means understanding basic civics and not screaming for government to ignore the Constitution. Accept it. Government should spend what it needs, not a penny more. It must consider the downside to the taxpayers footing the bill for these never-ending programs instead of just considering and fetishizing the benefits to the recipients.

It means dealing with fiscally irresponsible and unsustainable borrowing and deficits. It does mean that decade after decade of profligate spending and insane borrowing even as tax revenues increase year over year is a crime. This tenet is a tough sell. Americans expect these benefits. Americans think of them as birthrights. The best that can be done is to make the programs affordable and sustainable again. We need to recognize there is a place for government support of the truly needy. This includes short-term support for the unemployed, short-term food aid, short-term housing aid, etc. Be clear that there is a role for some government welfare. Get government out of the way of American business. It means considering whether regulations are necessary instead of merely politically desirable.

It means significantly reducing or eliminating lobbyist input, especially where industries are angling for anti-competitive or barrier to entry rules and regulations. It means getting rid of all industry subsidies over time. No more industry specific tax breaks or support programs. No more protectionist tariffs where the international competition is acting in accordance with laws. This means decrying abortion and working to limit or eliminate it insofar as possible.

Unborn Americans have rights, too. It means supporting the rights of people to choose whom they want to love and doing so free of harassment or discrimination. It does not mean accepting open borders and unlimited immigration. We have no obligation to illegal aliens other than arresting, trying, and deporting them as swiftly as possible and not abusing them while in custody. It means not tolerating cancel culture or engaging in it yourself. This was nothing more than an off-the-cuff, poorly thought out brain purge. He had to go all the way down to the Leaping Peacock to get a fresh handle of scotch. Quotas were required in order to guarantee the letters page is vajjed-up to the appropriate level, you see.

Since we have previously established Ms. Probolus is a godless commie ideologue, we may now move on to her most recent letter, a letter celebrating her victory over meritocracy and by extension, Whitey T. Mann, that oppressive bastard. In short, Ms. He then understands and feels bad. And yet, he could not hear the small blond woman standing right in front of him. As far back as ancient Greece — when Cassandra warned the Trojans about that giant wooden horse — women have been speaking loudly and clearly.

Now we are called on to force only one of the sexes to do the bidding of the other sex. Men must be made to communicate with women in the style and manner which women would like, screw them and their preferences. Surely this will end well! Male readers of The New York Times, this is about you. Unless you listen to women in exactly the way Ms. Probolus wants you to listen, you must be named and shamed. Probolus has nothing of interest to say to men and thus they ignore her. Or perhaps that her hectoring and male-bashing so turns off even the progressive beta male manjina-endowed caucus that they ignore her assuming its more of the same horseshit. These thoughts never occur to her. But how are we men to be reeducated? Will there be death camps and cattle prods and chicks in hot leather jumpsuits and no underwear?

Read on. Fortunately, there are practical strategies to help men become both better listeners and more active listeners. First, to be a good listener, stop talking. Second, active listening means hearing the words women are saying and taking them at face value, even if those words contradict your prior assumptions or your own agenda. Third, being an active listener means asking questions. STFU and obey women. Jettison your own beliefs and adopt hers unquestioningly. Women do not speak with one voice. Practicing feminist listening is something you can start right now. Right away. Put her in control of your thoughts, words, and deeds. Keep quiet, look pretty, her opinions are your opinions, treat her as God.

Probolus is going to get around to advocate beating your man if he dares get uppity. After presenting her perfect plan for ruining male-female interaction and destroying all heterosexual relationships for a generation, could there be anything left to accomplish for our fearless Comrade Probolus? O ye of little faith. You bet there is. This ask may seem small, but listening must be the first step toward systemic change. Members of Congress should listen to the opinions of their female constituents and prioritize the legislation that they ask for. Organizations should listen to their female employees about what policies would be most helpful to support their personal and professional flourishing, and then take active steps to enact those policies.

This is mind-blowing, world-altering work right here! Because Ms. Probolus says so. After all, women are more equal than men. Corporations should ignore shareholders and profits, instead turning the workplace over to women to run according to their whims. Need a menstrual day off? Sure, no problem! How about 18 years of paid leave to raise your family? No problem! Follow me down the rabbit hole into the diseased, fascistic mind of a dedicated feminist.

Social media should regulate online platforms to safeguard women against harassment and to ensure that their voices are heard. Our legal system must figure out how it can listen to women, particularly in cases of rape. And it needs to respond to women whose identities exist at the intersection, listening to the nuances of what it means to be injured because one is both a woman and black, a woman and queer. Listening will not solve inequality. Stupid men just abuse it anyway. Marketplaces and robust debates are for chumps! Men have two options. First, men can accept us feminists cramming our program down their subjugated throats which is totally not mind-raping, you sexist hater!

Or second, men can be destroyed. We women are offering you men choice. You get to pick! And rights of the accused? Due process and the presumption of innocence are archaic concepts. China and Russia are models of efficiency! We need to replicate those here, run solely by women, of course. Did Ms. Well, guess what, dickheads? Erm, reeducated. Definitely reeducated. Forget the whole liquidated thing. All you idiots have to do is listen — really listen — to Ms. Do you wonder what Ms. Identifying and vilifying hateful, sexist men is easy. I hope that they will listen, and I hope that they will change.

If The New York Times can do it, perhaps its male readers can, too. After Ms. And women? Do women have any responsibility here? Not a one. Women bear no responsibility for any of their actions or beliefs. Now listen up, Ms. Are you ready? You can take your hateful, totalitarian agenda and fuck right the fuck off, you un-American bitch. Is there a Vaj-o-meter which measures it? So many questions. Probolus are kindred spirits. She was a Fulbright Scholar. Undergrad degree from a hard-Left feminist college Smith? But perhaps Ms. We should give her the benefit of the doubt. What else has our intrepid culture warrior been up to? Or quotas for that matter. Probolus unionized grad students.

Definitely the kind of person who would think that merit should govern transactions, not connections, genitalia, misguided and dangerous political ideologies, or thuggery. Maybe Ms. We should check. Broadly, my work focuses on the history of education, race, gender, and political economy in the postwar era. As a social and politician historian, I privilege the voices and ideas of non-expert over expert actors. Board of Education. The project makes two key contributions to postwar U. First, I argue that gifted and talented programs both reflected and contributed to the decline of liberalism during the Cold War by reframing public education as an individual right as opposed to a social good. While other scholars have explored the role that battles over school integration played in the retreat from state services, less attention has been paid to how programs for gifted students fundamentally impacted the public school system and informed this larger decline.

I reveal how a new, overwhelmingly white, urban middle class used merit to secure the best educational opportunities for their sons and daughters while foreclosing those same opportunities for students of color. Um, godless commie ideologue status confirmed. Not merely confirmed but confirmed in carved stone tablets God gave to Moses on Mt. Sinai confirmed. Working class wypipo who believe America is a place which rewards hard work and merit are bigots. Meritocracy in classroom placements is end-running Brown v.

Board of Education and reintroducing racial segregation. Believing a founding principle of this nation — namely, meritocracy — is racist and damned generation after generation of poor minority kids to crappy education and probably drug addiction and a life of crime as well, you hateful, oppressor wypipo bastards! Seems like a good time for a break before diving into Ms. It would also be a good time for you to go take a gnarly, bowl-coating, Presidents Day dump. Go ahead. And pray for you. Definitely wrong though. Like Paul Krugman level wrong. The woman has an EdD which is basically a participation trophy for people who want the cachet of a doctoral degree without the effort. The NYT editors working diligently on their next big idea: requiring the electoral college to be populated solely by members of the NYT editorial board.

We committed ourselves to work toward a goal of gender parity and to report on our progress in February Lazy writing written for lazy people who are unable to think beyond nonsensical tropes media force-feeds them. Read on, if you dare. As of today, the tally is 43 percent women, 57 percent men — numbers that have remained remarkably constant for several months. While we do not have exact data from previous years, we do know that there are now far more women on the page than in the past. We have also done spot tallies of the much larger number of submissions.

Got it? The NYT editors decided the daily letters page needed to be vaginaed up, filling a gaping void so to speak. Naturally, the editors instituted a quota just like the communist sympathizers they are. Make letters snatch-tastic again. Letters are cooter-iffic! But what was reinforced by this project is that our letters pages are richer for this new collection of voices — and it compels us to broaden our efforts further, to ensure that we are publishing a range of letters from an even more diverse pool of writers going forward. If the NYT admits it lowers its allegedly high standards for submitted letters to publish to push its political agenda the aggressive enbewbification of letters to the editor , has it also lowered its standards for reporters and reporting?

Corona has now killed over trillion people in your neighborhood today alone, particularly in the Americas somewhere. You feel anxious, afraid and intensely guilty. It involves a Colorado fourth-grader and a giant screw-nosed boring machine. Biopsy results? Your k after an inevitable downturn? You ate beef for lunch. You booked a flight, turned on the heat, forgot your reusable grocery bags at home. This is your fault. To believe this, one must also believe two predicates: 1 climate change in the near term will make Earth uninhabitable and 2 all Americans are as deluded and as fragile as the author and other coastal elites.

I have thoughts. Even better, I have a five-point plan to manage the psychological toll of living with climate change and to become part of the solution. Second, thank God for Ms. Stalin and his merry band of Soviet murderers had five-year plans. Close enough. Anyhoo, what does Ms. Our economic systems require most adults to work …. Clearly, the solution is to exterminate the one-percenters to usher in a global green Utopia. The game is rigged. Everyone you know, everyone you meet, everyone ever everywhere is a victim! People should just give you free crap because Oregon and stuff.

Liz Warren, noted Native American spokes-squaw. This compares to the average annual per person emissions of 16 metric tons. Marris should also include the increased emissions for coal and wood burning overseas likely in China and India where the LNG would have been exported, reducing the need to burn dirtier fossil fuels. It will be solved by electing the right people, passing the right laws, drafting the right regulations, signing the right treaties — and respecting those treaties already signed, particularly with indigenous nations. It will be solved by holding the companies and people who have made billions off our shared atmosphere to account.

So elect hard-Left enviroweenies, trust in other countries to run our economy for the good of Gaia, and surrender your freedoms to those who know better than you Ms. Second, joining a group accomplishes nothing. Marris cites several groups, none of which seem to have accomplished much of anything except offering a place for puffed-up leftist egos to go and talk to like-minded climate change induced dementia patients in a never-ending echo chamber. The Swedish Climate Meatball is mentioned. Or you might volunteer for a climate-focused local or national political candidate. You can meet this prong of Ms. Perhaps Ms. Marris means voting only for candidates of whom she approves. Marris and her ilk.

That seems reasonable. Lest you think Ms. Marris requires your absolute subservience, think again! Truly, she is a most benevolent Duce Fuhrer leader, concerned for her slaves minions fellow travelers:. Set a sustainable level of involvement for yourself and keep it up. As a bonus, working with a group will increase the richness and diversity of your personal relationships, and may well temper your climate anxiety and depression. Only Ms. Marris can help you recover from your climate anxiety and depression. Hey, Ms. Marris invented Scientology! Know what you are fighting for, not just what you are fighting against. It is a time of healing. Many ecosystems have changed, but natural resilience and thoughtful human assistance is preventing most species from going extinct.

Instead, they are climbing trees. Most normal people want no part of the world Ms. Marris and her ilk wish to foist upon them. And Ms. Marris and her ilk are too stupid, too power-hungry, or too brainwashed to realize it. Marris lives in Klamath Falls, Oregon? Because of course she does. Anyhow, the Gormogons are pleased to announce Season 3. This season promises even more episodes will be added to our library, available to your left on the side of the screen. So you can expect more information, fun, chaos, and rambling hilarity pretty soon.

Check out Twitter, where you can submit questions for us to answer. Our addresses are to the left as well. The hardest part? For many years, GorT has been advocating that we need to improve our teaching of Civics in our schools. Never is it so apparent as during Presidential campaign season when we get to witness sitting Senators completely forget that they are in the legislative body of our federal government and promise one legislative act after another as part of their Presidential platform — many over-reaching, in my opinion, the bounds of the federal government. She makes great points:.

She concludes by arguing that it would benefit the kids to have the schools focus on civics rather than supporting them missing school in the hopes that it could unite Americans above the divisions that current protests exacerbate. Have the school districts really thought out about how the kids will cover missed work and learning? So these students turn to their peers who attended for help. Maybe the school and teachers will feel for these students and go easier on them for missing class — setting up multiple standards for those who attend vs.

The religion department our senior year decided that the class should take a field trip to witness the protests around the U. GorT penned an essay as did others about why the field trip was coercive and wrong. Upon reflection, at least one religion teacher expressed an understanding that it might not have been the best idea and admired the students taking different stands on the event.

Civics matters. Far too many Americans are ignorant of how this country works — or more accurately, is supposed to work based on our foundational documents and laws. People should understand who controls the federal purse-strings and how that gets done — and why government shutdowns are solely the fault of Congress not the President. As GorT, Sr. The Internet has a lot of useful things, but as we all know, it has a lot of nonsense as well. While that indeed is obvious, even reasonable people can—from time to time—get lost in trying to determine which is which. A common theme we see on social media is the mistaken belief that Nazis fall on the right end of the American political spectrum.

A great many sites attempt to correct this information, but generally fall into two categories: outlandish rebuttals that resemble spittle-flecked rants, or overly long and bone-dry lectures featuring just a little too much German to be quickly understood. This brief essay attempts to provide a quietly analytical resource for people of all political opinions but presented in a simple and straightforward manner. Were the Nazis on the Left or Right? If you are an American, the Nazis were technically on the political left, for reasons we will explore in a moment. If you are from Europe or Asia, the answer depends on your sociopolitical outlook.

The Nazis embraced socialism and placed it prominently in their name. Were you to ask a Nazi of , , or if he or she were a socialist, that person would agree immediately. A fair amount of retroactive spinning has landed in the last few years that attempts to question this. Even the Snopes. The problem with a lot of this 21 st Century analysis is that it uses current definitions of socialism to dispute the idea, rather than using the ideas in use at the time. Socialism and communism were not new ideas in the s, but they were a lot better understood then, than years later. We will address this more in a little while.

Nationalism —the idea that the country comes first, before party—is frequently used by both the right and left in this country. Instead, the Nazis wanted to nationalize their socialism as a verb , in the way that some governments have nationalized industries, healthcare, and education. The Nazis were the outgrowth of some local labor movements that banded together and nationalized their organization. The fact they were ardent nationalists certainly helped popularize the idea that nationalism is a bad thing, but it is essential to remember that both ends of the political spectrum use nationalism, and generally for good.

In short—the word nationalism is neither good nor bad, and neither attributable to the Left or Right by itself. Earlier, we mentioned that a lot of contemporary sources paint complicated pictures, attempting to separate socialism from what the Nazis were doing. The latter group are pretty well agreed that the Nazis were socialists. These governments are in fact capitalist with structures implemented along socialist lines. As a result, modern writers frequently attempt to redefine what socialism is, rather than clarify how the Nazis viewed it. The list of things that made the Nazis socialist is quite lengthy : they had socialized medicine, education, a centrally managed military with law enforcement powers, nationalized industry, restrictions on free trade, free speech, and association, central economic planning with price and wage controls, government-run media including newspapers, radio, movies, and even television , a strong welfare state, and on and on.

Many European governments have these things, too. If that makes them socialist, then fine; however, you cannot have these things and dismiss the Nazis as socialists without seriously stretching the ideas of Marx and Engels. Sooner or later, the discussion comes down to this question. Nazis engaged in a bloody battle against German communists; the Soviet Union, as well, battled the Nazis to an even more hellish level. The reason, many people believe, is because the Nazis were capitalist and therefore hated communists, and vice-versa.

The Nazis and German communists were each made up of socialists, although with a few differences. Both were opposed to the free-trade and libertarian principles of the Weimar Republic, and both recruited heavily from the same disaffected population of people hurt by the worldwide depression. They were two flavors of socialism, in head-to-head competition. Due to the seeming success of the Soviet Union, the Nazis were often on the losing side of recruitment, and quickly stepped up an aggressive policy of discouraging the disaffected population from joining the communists.

In , the Communists had superior numbers in the German government, but were still forced to share power with the Nazis. Nazi thugs in the crowd injured more than of the communists, starting a long history of violence between the two groups; the Nazis, however, won the public relations campaign and saw their numbers swell. The Nazis hated the communists all right, but not because they were anti-socialist; they hated the communists because the communists had more power in government until the Nazis used violence against them. This distinction is rapidly spreading through Europe, as well.

In traditional European political thought, dating back to the French Revolution, the Right tended to favor the establishment the monarchy , and the Left promoted limited government. This notion spread rapidly through Europe. Often, Americans tend to think of this European model as reversed, but it really is not. Many Europeans still using this model put the Nazis on the Right due to fascist control and would place Americans as a whole on the Left because of the Constitution. A socialist in America is invariably placed on the Left; a libertarian is on the Right.

When Americans began seeing Nazis referred to as being on the Right in European analyses, the assumption was made that Nazis, as fascists, must be like conservative Republicans. In fact, regardless of what one thinks of conservatives or Republicans, the Nazis would certainly have opposed them, and would have found much more common ground with the American Left. But before liberals become outraged, read the next question!

However, reasonable people do not want to be associated with Nazis; as a result, the faster you can distance yourself from Nazism, the better. Fortunately, the only people who want to be associated with Nazis are, well, Nazis. Unfortunately, political groups mistakenly want to go further than this and associate their political rivals with Nazis. As a result, Americans on the Right and Left are quick to point a finger at the other side and declare them to be Nazis on a tiresomely daily basis.

Unless the other side is made up of actual Nazis, this probably is a bonehead approach to political expression. Keep this in mind: the Nazis would hate the American Right, and they would just as surely hate the American Left. Hate them. To the point of trying to kill them equally, which indeed happened between and It reveals a profound lack of historical knowledge and misunderstanding of socioeconomic theory.

This is not the same as the departure of financial managers, bankers, or other paper-hangers. It is a serious problem that currently has no solution. Learning embedded software design and engineering is hard work. Learning firmware design and engineering is hard work. And all three skills are needed to turn out the highly complex and advanced systems that are needed to drive economic, commercial, and industrial productivity.

Your friend who complains about not being able to find forklift operators is right, but for a reason he may not realize. Some of us have spent decades advocating for a dual-track educational system: university and trade. In truth, a trade provides far more job security than a university degree in financial management. Plumbers, carpenters, mechanics, roofers, dental hygienests — these folks are needed all year long and all the time.

When these children graduate from high school, they neither have the skills nor the emotional maturity to begin productive lives. America is losing the skilled worker base that built the industrial and technological base that made America the wonder of the world. The proof? But the economy is expanding so quickly that even these resources are dried up. This is of course a minor quibble, because a otherwise, Operative B is right about the priority of our resources, and b the explosive growth of Amazon and Wal-Mart have seen forklift drivers specifically skyrocket in demand. Believe it or not, this was not foreseen. However, Trump seems to have sputtered the manufacturing sector back into a flicker of life, and suddenly, yes, these jobs are needed again.

And after 8 years of Obama and 8 years of Bush writing off the manufacturing world, yeah, we kind of agreed that kids should be looking elsewhere. Well, these jobs are back—and the workers? Well, they went elsewhere. The Czar exaggerates, of course, but returns right now are crazy-high. Some of you may be able to retire early enough to enjoy the fruits of your labor. The Czar knows a lot of people in all walks of life; for example, he happens to know a handful of professional recruiters—who do not as far as he is aware have any knowledge of the other.

Two, in particular, say similar things: unemployment is ridiculously low. There are none to be found. The owner was serious. That last one is not quite fair; as we said, we know a lot of people. Some of them are not working right now, and are hurting financially. Despite these pains, overall the economy is running pretty smoothly despite media hopes, much as we predicted. And while the Dow is a terrible indicator on which to rely , it shows American industry is much stronger than it has been in years. And it means what you think it does: Democrat millionaires need taxes raised on the middle class to shift the burden away from, well, Democrat millionaires. Your Gormogons have long enjoyed the hospitality of the United Kingdom.

You can already guess the Czar is about to take you in a different direction. In exchange, the British economy—despite showing no signs of recession but every indication of increasing cash flow for the average person—is going to be corrected by locking it into a regulation-heavy system of government control. If that sounds familiar, it should. The biggest difference is that the Brits got to vote earlier than we did, and the result as a tremendous trouncing of Leftist lunacy.

Not only did Brits reject the Leftist vision, they did so in a landslide. Another important factor: headlines are screeching that voter turnout was down from Si noti la copertina lavorata, le borchie d'angolo e i morsetti. Insegnamenti scelti di saggi buddisti , il primo libro stampato con caratteri metallici mobili, Le macchine da stampa a vapore diventarono popolari nel XIX secolo. Queste macchine potevano stampare 1. Le macchine tipografiche monotipo e linotipo furono introdotte verso la fine del XIX secolo. Hart , la prima biblioteca di versioni elettroniche liberamente riproducibili di libri stampati.

I libri a stampa sono prodotti stampando ciascuna imposizione tipografica su un foglio di carta. Le varie segnature vengono rilegate per ottenere il volume. L'apertura delle pagine, specialmente nelle edizioni in brossura , era di solito lasciata al lettore fino agli anni sessanta del XX secolo , mentre ora le segnature vengono rifilate direttamente dalla tipografia. Nei libri antichi il formato dipende dal numero di piegature che il foglio subisce e, quindi, dal numero di carte e pagine stampate sul foglio. Le "carte di guardia", o risguardi, o sguardie, sono le carte di apertura e chiusura del libro vero e proprio, che collegano materialmente il corpo del libro alla coperta o legatura.

Non facendo parte delle segnature , non sono mai contati come pagine. Si chiama "controguardia" la carta che viene incollata su ciascun "contropiatto" la parte interna del "piatto" della coperta, permettendone il definitivo ancoraggio. Le sguardie sono solitamente di carta diversa da quella dell'interno del volume e possono essere bianche, colorate o decorate con motivi di fantasia nei libri antichi erano marmorizzate. Il colophon o colofone, che chiude il volume, riporta le informazioni essenziali sullo stampatore e sul luogo e la data di stampa. In origine nei manoscritti era costituito dalla firma o subscriptio del copista o dello scriba, e riportava data, luogo e autore del testo; in seguito fu la formula conclusiva dei libri stampati nel XV e XVI secolo, che conteneva, talvolta in inchiostro rosso, il nome dello stampatore, luogo e data di stampa e l' insegna dell'editore.

Sopravvive ancor oggi, soprattutto con la dicitura Finito di stampare. Nel libro antico poteva essere rivestita di svariati materiali: pergamena, cuoio, tela, carta e costituita in legno o cartone. Poteva essere decorata con impressioni a secco o dorature. Ciascuno dei due cartoni che costituiscono la copertina viene chiamato piatto. Nel XIX secolo la coperta acquista una prevalente funzione promozionale.

Ha caratterizzato a lungo l'editoria per l'infanzia e oggi, ricoperto da una "sovraccoperta", costituisce il tratto caratteristico delle edizioni maggiori. Le "alette" o "bandelle" comunemente dette "risvolti di copertina" sono le piegature interne della copertina o della sovraccoperta vedi infra. Generalmente vengono utilizzate per una succinta introduzione al testo e per notizie biografiche essenziali sull'autore. Di norma, riporta le indicazioni di titolo e autore. I libri con copertina cartonata in genere sono rivestiti da una "sovraccoperta". Oltre al taglio "superiore" o di "testa" vi sono il taglio esterno, detto "davanti" o "concavo" , e il taglio inferiore, detto "piede".

I tagli possono essere al naturale, decorati o colorati in vario modo. In questi ultimi casi, si parla di "taglio colore", nel passato usati per distinguere i libri religiosi o di valore dalla restante produzione editoriale, utilizzando una spugna imbevuta di inchiostri all' anilina anni del XX secolo. Riporta solitamente titolo, autore, e editore del libro. Sovente riporta un motto. Assente nel libro antico. I primi incunaboli e manoscritti non avevano il frontespizio, ma si aprivano con una carta bianca con funzione protettiva. Nel XVII secolo cede la parte decorativa all' antiporta e vi compaiono le indicazioni di carattere pubblicitario riferite all'editore, un tempo riservate al colophon.

In epoca moderna, le illustrazioni e parte delle informazioni si sono trasferite sulla copertina o sulla sovraccoperta e altre informazioni nel verso del frontespizio. Nel libro antico i "nervi" sono i supporti di cucitura dei fascicoli. I nervi possono essere lasciati a vista e messi in evidenza attraverso la "staffilatura" , oppure nascosti in modo da ottenere un dorso liscio. Nel libro moderno i nervi sono di norma finti, apposti per imitare l'estetica del libro antico e conferire importanza al libro. Se esse fanno parte integrante del testo sono chiamate illustrazioni.

Esse hanno una numerazione di pagina distinta da quella del testo; vengono impresse su una carta speciale, quasi sempre una carta patinata. Altri progetti. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Disambiguazione — "Libri" rimanda qui. Se stai cercando altri significati, vedi Libri disambigua. Disambiguazione — Se stai cercando altri significati, vedi Libro disambigua. Pagina del Codex Argenteus. Storia, tecnica, strutture. Arma di Taggia, Atene, , p. All ,, of you. URL consultato il 15 agosto There are ,, of them. At least until Sunday. URL consultato il 5 giugno Scribes, Script and Books , p. Dover Publications , p. Libro VI, capitolo Cambridge University Press , pp. Casson, op. Solo codici venivano usati dai cristiani per far copie delle Sacre Scritture e anche per altri scritti religiosi.

Gli undici codici biblici di questo periodo sei con la Septuaginta e cinque con parti del Nuovo Testamento sono su codici. Colin H. Roberts e T.

An appellant Patrick Henrys Contribution To The American Revolution prove actual bias or manifest romeo and juliet symbols in the case at hand. Angus Suttie 26 November — 17 June was a studio potter and teacher of art ceramics, most notably at Morley Patrick Henrys Contribution To The American Revolution, London. Barry Robins January 12, — April 1,was an American stage, film and television actor. Patrick Henrys Contribution To The American Revolution Europeans still using this model put the Nazis on the Right trevor v. whitworth to fascist control and would place Americans as a whole on the Left because of the Constitution.

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