⒈ Chinese Immigrants 19th Century

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Chinese Immigrants 19th Century



Main article: Sangley. This comes with a Chinese Immigrants 19th Century about the widespread Gender In Children Literature and de-emphasising of the exact number of Chinese in the Chinese Immigrants 19th Century. They Chinese Immigrants 19th Century on Chinese Immigrants 19th Century air. The Europeans tended to find gold to benefit Chinese Immigrants 19th Century and Chinese Immigrants 19th Century families, and many decided to stay in Australia Chinese Immigrants 19th Century finding their fortune. With China's growing Chinese Immigrants 19th Century prospects, many of Chinese Immigrants 19th Century overseas Chinese have begun to migrate back to China, even as many Chinese Immigrants 19th Century Chinese millionaires are considering emigrating out of the nation for better opportunities. While gold was the major pull factor, the Chinese commonly had a Chinese Immigrants 19th Century motivation Chinese Immigrants 19th Century the Europeans when it Chinese Immigrants 19th Century Wuthering Heights Stereotypes spending their Chinese Immigrants 19th Century wealth. Personal Narrative: The Only Mexican First College Student was followed suit Chinese Immigrants 19th Century the establishment of other Chinese Immigrants 19th Century schools, such as Chinese Immigrants 19th Century Siong College Chinese Immigrants 19th Century Iloilo established in Iloilo inthe Chinese Chinese Immigrants 19th Century School established in Manila Chinese Immigrants 19th Century and also the first school for Chinese Immigrants 19th Century ChineseSaint Chinese Immigrants 19th Century High Chinese Immigrants 19th Century established in Manila in and was the first sectarian school for the Chinese and Chinese National School in Chinese Immigrants 19th Century in

What was the impact of the Chinese Exclusion Act? - The Chinese Exclusion Act

In order to placate the western states without offending China, President Hayes sought a revision of the Burlingame-Seward Treaty in which China agreed to limit immigration to the United States. In , the Hayes Administration appointed U. Angell to negotiate a new treaty with China. The resulting Angell Treaty permitted the United States to restrict, but not completely prohibit, Chinese immigration. In , Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which, per the terms of the Angell Treaty, suspended the immigration of Chinese laborers skilled or unskilled for a period of 10 years.

The Act also required every Chinese person traveling in or out of the country to carry a certificate identifying his or her status as a laborer, scholar, diplomat, or merchant. The Act was the first in American history to place broad restrictions on immigration. For American presidents and Congressmen addressing the question of Chinese exclusion, the challenge was to balance domestic attitudes and politics, which dictated an anti-Chinese policy, while maintaining good diplomatic relations with China, where exclusion would be seen as an affront and a violation of treaty promises. The domestic factors ultimately trumped international concerns. In , Congress took exclusion even further and passed the Scott Act, which made reentry to the United States after a visit to China impossible, even for long-term legal residents.

The Chinese Government considered this act a direct insult, but was unable to prevent its passage. In , Congress voted to renew exclusion for ten years in the Geary Act, and in , the prohibition was expanded to cover Hawaii and the Philippines, all over strong objections from the Chinese Government and people. Congress later extended the Exclusion Act indefinitely. In China, merchants responded to the humiliation of the exclusion acts by organizing an anti-American boycott in Though the movement was not sanctioned by the Chinese government, it received unofficial support in the early months.

According to a study of around 30, gravestones in the Manila Chinese Cemetery which writes the birthplace or family ancestral origins of those buried there, The Hokkien-descended Chinese Filipinos currently dominate the light industry and heavy industry, as well as the entrepreneurial and real estate sectors of the Philippine economy. Many younger Hokkien-descended Chinese Filipinos are also entering the fields of banking, computer science, engineering, finance and medicine. To date, most emigrants and permanent residents from Mainland China , as well as the vast majority of Taiwanese people in the Philippines are also of Hokkien background. They migrated in large numbers to the Philippines during the Spanish Period by the thousands to the main Luzon island of Philippines, [38] but later on were eventually absorbed by intermarriage into the mainstream Hokkien.

Many also settled in the provinces of Northern Luzon e. Many are not as economically prosperous as the Hokkien Chinese Filipinos. They also had no qualms in intermarrying with other local Filipinos and most of their descendants are now assimilated as Chinese mestizos , rather than identifying as Chinese Filipino. During the early s, Chinese migration from Cantonese-speaking areas in China to the Philippines trickled to almost zero, as migrants from Hokkien-speaking areas gradually increased, explaining the gradual decrease of the Cantonese demographic.

Presently, they are into small-scale entrepreneurship and in education. There are also some ethnic Chinese from neighboring Asian countries and territories, most notably from Malaysia , Indonesia , Vietnam , Taiwan and Hong Kong who are naturalized Philippine citizens and have since formed part of the Chinese Filipino community. Many of them are also Hokkien speakers, with a sizeable number of Cantonese and Teochew speakers.

Temporary resident Chinese businessmen and envoys include people from Beijing , Shanghai and other major cities and provinces throughout China. The exact number of all Filipinos with some Chinese ancestry is unknown. The National Statistics Office does not conduct surveys of ethnicity. According to a research report by historian Austin Craig who was commissioned by the United States in to ascertain the total number of the various races of the Philippines, the pure Chinese, referred to as Sangley , number around 20, as of , and that around one-third of the population of Luzon have partial Chinese ancestry.

This comes with a footnote about the widespread concealing and de-emphasising of the exact number of Chinese in the Philippines. The vast majority The use of Hokkien as first language is seemingly confined to the older generation, as well as in Chinese Filipino families living in traditional Chinese Filipino centers, such as Binondo chinatown in Manila and Caloocan. In part due to the increasing adoption of Philippine nationality during the Marcos era , most Chinese Filipinos born from the s up to the mids tend to use English and Filipino Tagalog or other Philippine regional languages , which they also frequently code-switch together as Taglish or even together with Hokkien as Hokaglish.

Among the younger generation born mids onward , the preferred language is often English besides also, of course, knowing Filipino Tagalog or other Philippine regional languages. Recent arrivals from Mainland China or Taiwan , despite coming from traditionally Hokkien-speaking areas, typically now use Mandarin among themselves. Unlike other Overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia which featured a multiplicity of dialect groups, Chinese Filipinos descend overwhelmingly from Hokkien -speaking regions in Southern Fujian. Hence, Hokkien remains the main heritage language among Chinese Filipinos.

Mandarin , however, is perceived as the prestigious Chinese language, which is taught in Chinese Filipino schools and used in all official and formal functions within the Chinese Filipino community, despite the fact that very few Chinese Filipinos are conversant in Mandarin or have it as heritage language. For the Chinese mestizos , Spanish used to be the important prestige language and the preferred first language at the turn of the century especially during the Spanish colonial era.

Starting from the American period, the use of Spanish gradually decreased and is now completely replaced by either English or Filipino. Currently, it is typically the elderlies and older generations such as those of the Silent generation , Baby boomer generation and some from Generation X who typically speak Philippine Hokkien as their first or second or third language , especially as first or second generation Chinese Filipinos, whereas the younger generations such as some from Generation X and most Millennials and Generation Z youth sparsely use it as either a third or second or rarely first language , due to it only being used or heard within family households and never being taught at schools anymore.

As a result, most of the youth can only understand by ear or do not know it at all anymore and instead mostly uses both English and Filipino Tagalog or other Philippine languages. Philippine Hokkien is mutually intelligible to a certain degree with other Hokkien variants in mainland China , Taiwan , Malaysia , Singapore , Indonesia , etc and is particularly close to the variant spoken in Quanzhou , especially around Jinjiang. Mandarin is currently the subject and medium of instruction for teaching Standard Chinese Mandarin class subjects in Chinese Filipino schools in the Philippines.

However, since the language is rarely used outside of the classroom besides jobs and interactions related to Mainland China and Taiwan , most Chinese Filipinos would be hard-pressed to converse in Mandarin. Some Chinese Filipino schools now also teach Mandarin in Simplified characters with the Pinyin system, modeled after those in China and Singapore. Some schools teach both or either of the systems. Some families of Cantonese ancestry within the Chinese Filipino community also speak Philippine Hokkien , especially those that intermarried with Chinese Filipinos of Hokkien ancestry.

There may still be a dwindling few families that may still use Taishanese or Cantonese privately amongst families of such ancestry. Just as many Filipinos , the vast majority of Chinese Filipinos who grew up in the Philippines are fluent in English , especially that of Philippine English which descends from American English and are usually natively bilingual or even multilingual as taught in schools in the Philippines since both English and Filipino are required subjects in all levels of all schools in the Philippines as English serves as an important formal prestige language in Philippine society.

Others have it as their second language or third language or natively bilingual or multilingual together with Filipino or other Philippine languages. Cebuano , Hiligaynon , Waray , etc. Many Chinese Filipinos, especially those living in the provinces , speak the regional language of their province as their first language , if not English or Filipino. This frequent code-switching has also produced another trilingual mix with the above Philippine Hokkien , known as Hokaglish which mixes Hokkien , Tagalog and English , though in other provinces , their equivalent dominant regional language is mixed instead of Tagalog or also along with Tagalog in a quadrilingual mix, due to the normalcy of code-switching and multilingualism as part of Philippine society.

During the Spanish colonial period and subsequent few decades before its replacement by English, Spanish used to be the formal prestige language of Philippine society and hence, Sangley Chinese Spanish-era unmixed Chinese , Chinese mestizos Spanish-era mixed Chinese Filipinos and Tornatras Spanish-era mixed Chinese-Spanish or Chinese-Spanish-Native mestizos also learned to speak Spanish throughout the Spanish colonial period to the early to mid 20th century when its role was eventually eclipsed by English and later largely dissipated from mainstream Philippine society.

Most of the elites of Philippine society during the Spanish colonial era and American colonial era was made up of both Spanish mestizos and Chinese mestizos, which later intermixed together to an unknown degree and now frequently treated as one group known as Filipino mestizos. Due to this history in the Philippines, many of the older generation Chinese Filipinos mainly those born before WWII , whether pure or mixed, can also understand some Spanish, due to its importance in commerce and industry. Almost all Chinese Filipinos, including the Chinese mestizos but excluding recent migrants from either Mainland China or Taiwan , had or will have their marriages in a Christian church.

Unique to the Catholicism of Chinese Filipinos is the religious syncretism that is found in Chinese Filipino homes. It is not unheard of to venerate the Blessed Virgin Mary , saints, or the dead using joss sticks and otherwise traditional offerings, much as one would have done for Guan Yin or Mazu. Chinese Filipinos comprise a large percentage of membership in some of the largest evangelical churches in the Philippines, many of which are also founded by Chinese Filipinos, such as the Christian Gospel Center, Christ's Commission Fellowship , United Evangelical Church of the Philippines and the Youth Gospel Center.

In contrast to Roman Catholicism, Protestantism forbids traditional Chinese practices such as ancestor veneration, but allows the use of meaning or context substitution for some practices that are not directly contradicted in the Bible e. Many also had ancestors already practicing Protestantism while still in China. Unlike native and mestizo Filipino-dominated Protestant churches in the Philippines which have very close ties with North American organizations, most Protestant Chinese Filipino churches instead sought alliance and membership with the Chinese Congress on World Evangelization , an organization of Overseas Chinese Christian churches throughout Asia.

Buddhist and Taoist temples can be found where the Chinese live, especially in urban areas like Manila. There are very few Filipino Muslim Chinese, most of whom live in either Mindanao or the Sulu Archipelago and have intermarried or assimilated with their Moro neighbors. Many of them have attained prominent positions as political leaders. Some younger generations of Chinese Filipinos also profess to be atheists.

There are Chinese schools that exist throughout the Philippines, slightly more than half of which operate in Metro Manila. The first curriculum called for rote memorization of the four major Confucian texts Four Books and Five Classics , as well as Western science and technology. This was followed suit by the establishment of other Chinese schools, such as Hua Siong College of Iloilo established in Iloilo in , the Chinese Patriotic School established in Manila in and also the first school for Cantonese Chinese , Saint Stephen's High School established in Manila in and was the first sectarian school for the Chinese and Chinese National School in Cebu in Burgeoning of Chinese schools throughout the Philippines as well as in Manila occurred from the s until the s, with a brief interlude during World War II, when all Chinese schools were ordered closed by the Japanese , and their students were forcibly integrated with Japanese-sponsored Philippine public education.

Such situation continued until , when amendments made during the Marcos Era to the Philippine Constitution effectively transferred all Chinese schools to the authority of the Republic of the Philippines ' Department of Education DepEd. Teaching hours relegated to Chinese language and arts, which featured prominently in the pre Chinese schools, were reduced. Lessons in Chinese geography and history, which were previously subjects in their own right, were integrated with the Chinese language subjects, whereas, the teaching of Filipino Tagalog and Philippine history, civics and culture became new required subjects.

The changes in Chinese education initiated with the Philippine Constitution led to the large shifting of mother tongues and assimilation of the Chinese Filipinos to general Philippine society. The limited time spent in Chinese instruction consists largely of language arts. Chinese history, geography and culture are also integrated in all the three core Chinese subjects — they stood as independent subjects of their own before Most Chinese Filipinos attend Chinese Filipino schools until Secondary level and then transfer to non-Chinese colleges and universities to complete their tertiary degree, due to the dearth of Chinese language tertiary institutions.

Many Chinese who lived during the Spanish naming edict of eventually adopted Spanish name formats, along with a Spanish given name e. Chinese mestizos, as well as some Chinese who chose to completely assimilate into the local Filipino or Spanish culture, adopted Spanish surnames. Newer Chinese migrants who came during the American Colonial Period use a combination of an adopted Spanish or rarely, English name together with their Chinese name e. As both exposure to North American media as well as the number of Chinese Filipinos educated in English increased, the use of English names among Chinese Filipinos, both common and unusual, started to increase as well.

Popular names among the second generation Chinese community included English names ending in "-son" or other Chinese-sounding suffixes, such as Anderson , Emerson , Jackson, Jameson, Jasson, Patrickson , Washington , among such others. For parents who are already third and fourth generation Chinese Filipinos, English names reflecting American popular trends are given, such as Ethan , Austin and Aidan. It is thus not unusual to find a young Chinese Filipino named Chase Tan whose father's name is Emerson Tan and whose grandfather's name was Elpidio Tan Keng Kui , reflecting the depth of immersion into the English language as well as into the Philippine society as a whole.

Chinese Filipinos whose ancestors came to the Philippines from onward usually have single syllable Chinese surnames. On the other hand, most Chinese ancestors came to the Philippines prior to usually have multiple syllable Chinese surnames such as Gokongwei, Ongpin, Pempengco, Yuchengco, Teehankee and Yaptinchay among such others. These were originally full Chinese names which were transliterated in Spanish orthography and adopted as surnames. There are also multiple syllable Chinese surnames that are Spanish transliterations of Hokkien words. Many also took on Spanish or native Filipino surnames e. Today, it can be difficult to identify who are Chinese Filipino based on surnames alone. A phenomenon common among Chinese migrants in the Philippines dating from the s would be purchasing of surnames , particularly during the American Colonial Period, when the Chinese Exclusion Act was applied to the Philippines.

Such law led new Chinese migrants to 'purchase' the Hispanic or native surnames of native and mestizo Filipinos and thus pass off as long time Filipino residents of Chinese descent or as native or mestizo Filipinos. Sometimes, younger Chinese migrants would circumvent the Act through adoption — wherein a Chinese with Philippine nationality adopts a relative or a stranger as his own children, thereby giving the adoptee automatic Filipino citizenship — and a new surname.

On the other hand, most Chinese Filipinos whose ancestors came to the Philippines prior to use a Hispanicized surname see below. These were originally full Chinese names which were transliterated into Spanish and adopted as surnames. Many Filipinos who have Hispanicized Chinese surnames are no longer pure Chinese, but are Chinese mestizos. Traditional Tsinoy cuisine, as Chinese Filipino home-based dishes are locally known, make use of recipes that are traditionally found in China's Fujian Province and fuse them with locally available ingredients and recipes. These include unique foods such as hokkien chha-peng Fujianese-style fried rice , si-nit mi-soa birthday noodles , pansit canton Fujianese-style e-fu noodles , hong ma or humba braised pork belly , sibut four-herb chicken soup , hototay Fujianese egg drop soup , kiampeng Fujianese beef fried rice , machang glutinous rice with adobo and taho a dessert made of soft tofu, arnibal syrup and pearl sago.

However, most Chinese restaurants in the Philippines, as in other places, feature Cantonese , Shanghainese and Northern Chinese cuisines, rather than traditional Fujianese fare. With the increasing number of Chinese with Philippine nationality, the number of political candidates of Chinese-Filipino descent also started to increase. The most significant change within Chinese Filipino political life would be the citizenship decree promulgated by former President Ferdinand Marcos which opened the gates for thousands of Chinese Filipinos to formally adopt Philippine citizenship.

Chinese Filipino political participation largely began with the People Power Revolution of which toppled the Marcos dictatorship and ushered in the Aquino presidency. The Chinese have been known to vote in blocs in favor of political candidates who are favorable to the Chinese community. Many ambassadors and recent appointees to the presidential cabinet are also Chinese Filipinos like Arthur Yap and Bong Go. The Chinese Filipino are mostly business owners [ according to whom? These mostly small or medium enterprises play a significant role in the Philippine economy. A handful of these entrepreneurs run large companies and are respected as some of the most prominent business tycoons in the Philippines.

Chinese Filipinos attribute their success in business to frugality and hard work, Confucian values and their traditional Chinese customs and traditions. They are very business-minded and entrepreneurship is highly valued and encouraged among the young. Most Chinese Filipinos are urban dwellers. In contrast with the Chinese mestizos, few Chinese are plantation owners. This is partly due to the fact that until recently when the Chinese Filipino became Filipino citizens, the law prohibited the non-citizens, which most Chinese were, from owning land.

As with other Southeast Asian nations, the Chinese community in the Philippines has become a repository of traditional Chinese culture common to unassimilated ethnic minorities throughout the world. Whereas in mainland China many cultural traditions and customs were suppressed during the Cultural Revolution or simply regarded as old-fashioned nowadays, these traditions have remained largely untouched in the Philippines. Many new cultural twists have evolved within the Chinese community in the Philippines, distinguishing it from other overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia. The Chinese Filipino have developed unique customs pertaining to weddings, birthdays and funerary rituals.

Certain customs found among Chinese Filipinos include the following: During supplication kiu-hun , a solemn tea ceremony within the house of the groom ensues where the couple will be served tea, egg noodles misua and given ang-paos red packets containing money. During the supplication ceremony, pregnant women and recently engaged couples are forbidden from attending the ceremony. Engagement ting-hun quickly follows, where the bride enters the ceremonial room walking backward and turned three times before being allowed to see the groom.

A welcome drink consisting of red-colored juice is given to the couple, quickly followed by the exchange of gifts for both families and the Wedding tea ceremony, where the bride serves the groom's family and vice versa. The engagement reception consists of sweet tea soup and misua, both of which symbolizes long-lasting relationship. Before the wedding, the groom is expected to provide the matrimonial bed in the future couple's new home. A baby born under the Chinese sign of the Dragon may be placed in the bed to ensure fertility. He is also tasked to deliver the wedding gown to his bride on the day prior to the wedding to the sister of the bride, as it is considered ill fortune for the groom to see the bride on that day.

For the bride, she prepares an initial batch of personal belongings ke-chheng to the new home, all wrapped and labeled with the Chinese characters for sang-hi. On the wedding date, the bride wears a red robe emblazoned with the emblem of a dragon prior to wearing the bridal gown, to which a pair of sang-hi English: marital happiness coin is sewn. Before leaving her home, the bride then throws a fan bearing the Chinese characters for sang-hi toward her mother to preserve harmony within the bride's family upon her departure.

Most of the wedding ceremony then follows Catholic or Protestant traditions. Post-Wedding rituals include the two single brothers or relatives of the bride giving the couple a wa-hoe set, which is a bouquet of flowers with umbrella and sewing kit , for which the bride gives an ang-pao in return. After three days, the couple then visits the bride's family, upon which a pair of sugar cane branch is given, which is a symbol of good luck and vitality among Hokkien people. Birthday traditions of Chinese Filipinos involve large banquet receptions, always featuring noodles [60] and round-shaped desserts.

All the relatives of the birthday celebrant are expected to wear red clothing which symbolize respect for the celebrant. Wearing clothes with a darker hue is forbidden and considered bad luck. During the reception, relatives offer ang paos red packets containing money to the birthday celebrant, especially if he is still unmarried. For older celebrants, boxes of egg noodles misua and eggs on which red paper is placed are given. Births of babies are not celebrated and they are usually given pet names, which he keeps until he reaches first year of age.

The Philippine custom of circumcision is widely practiced within the Chinese Filipino community regardless of religion, albeit at a lesser rate as compared to native Filipinos. Funerary traditions of Chinese Filipinos mirror those found in Fujian. A unique tradition of many Chinese Filipino families is the hiring of professional mourners which is alleged to hasten the ascent of a dead relative's soul into Heaven. This belief particularly mirrors the merger of traditional Chinese beliefs with the Catholic religion. Chinese Filipinos, especially in Metro Manila, are also divided into several social types. These types are not universally accepted as a fact, but are nevertheless recognized by most Chinese Filipinos to be existent.

These reflect an underlying generational gap within the community. Most of the Chinese mestizos, especially the landed gentry trace their ancestry to the Spanish era. They are the "First Chinese" or Sangley whose descendants nowadays are mostly integrated into Philippine society. Most are from Guangdong province in China, with a minority coming from Fujian. They have embraced a Hispanized Filipino culture since the 17th century. After the end of Spanish rule, their descendants, the Chinese mestizos, managed to invent a cosmopolitan mestizo culture [ citation needed ] coupled with an extravagant Mestizo de Sangley lifestyle, intermarrying either with native Filipinos or with Spanish mestizos.

The largest group of Chinese in the Philippines are the "Second Chinese," who are descendants of migrants in the first half of the 20th century, between the anti-Manchu Revolution in China and the Chinese Civil War. This group accounts for most of the "full-blooded" Chinese. They are almost entirely from Fujian Province. The "Third Chinese" are the second largest group of Chinese, the recent immigrants from Mainland China, after the Chinese economic reform of the s. Generally, the "Third Chinese" are the most entrepreneurial and have not totally lost their Chinese identity in its purest form and seen by some "Second Chinese" as a business threat. Meanwhile, continuing immigration from Mainland China further enlarge this group [63]. Aside from their family businesses, Chinese Filipinos are active in Chinese-oriented civic organizations related to education, health care, public safety, social welfare and public charity.

As most Chinese Filipinos are reluctant to participate in politics and government, they have instead turned to civic organizations as their primary means of contributing to the general welfare of the Chinese community. Whereas in Chinese immigrants did not appear among the ten largest foreign-born groups in the United States, China in replaced Mexico as the top sending country. After immigrants from Mexico and India, the Chinese represented the third largest group in the U. Chinese immigration in the United States has a long and fraught history.

Throughout the first half of the 19th century, Chinese manual laborers predominately men migrated to the West Coast, where they found employment in agriculture, mining, railroad construction, and other low-skilled jobs. In response to negative public sentiments and organized labor lobbying, Congress in passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, the first legislation aimed at excluding certain foreigners based on their origin.

Political, economic, and legal developments in both countries during the next half century made it difficult for Chinese nationals either to leave China or to obtain a U. The amendments to the Immigration and Nationality Act removed barriers for non-European immigration to the United States and created temporary worker programs for skilled workers. In contrast, nationals of Hong Kong did not face the same movement barriers as mainland Chinese and began arriving in the late s. Chinese authorities relaxed emigration controls in , and U. The number of immigrants from China residing in the United States nearly doubled from to , and again by Since then the population continued growing but at a slower pace see Figure 1.

Figure 1. Sources : Data from U. There were 80, Hong Kong-born immigrants in the United States in , a number that more than doubled to about , in and then increased slowly to , in Today, Hong-Kong born immigrants make up 10 percent of all Chinese immigrants residing in the United States. China is the main source of foreign students enrolled in U. Chinese nationals received nearly half of EB-5 investor green cards in The United States is the top destination for Chinese immigrants, accounting for almost 27 percent of the more than 12 million Chinese living outside of China, according to mid estimates by the United Nations Population Division. Other popular destinations include Canada , , Japan , , Australia , , South Korea , , and Singapore , Click here to view an interactive map showing where migrants from China and other countries have settled worldwide.

The U. Census Bureau defines the foreign born as individuals who had no U. The foreign-born population includes naturalized citizens, lawful permanent residents, refugees and asylees, legal nonimmigrants including those on student, work, or other temporary visas , and persons residing in the country without authorization. The terms foreign born and immigrant are used interchangeably and refer to those who were born in another country and later emigrated to the United States. Compared to the overall foreign- and native-born populations in the United States, Chinese immigrants are significantly better educated and more likely to be employed in management positions. Almost 30 percent of Chinese who obtain lawful permanent residence in the United States also known as getting a green card did so through employment-based routes; the remainder qualified through family ties or as asylees.

Using data from the U. Distribution by State and Key Cities. Roughly half of Chinese immigrants reside in just two states: California 32 percent and New York 19 percent. Together, these four counties accounted for one-quarter of the overall Chinese-born population in the United States. Figure 2. Note : Pooled ACS data were used to get statistically valid estimates at the state level for smaller-population geographies. Not shown are Chinese populations in Alaska and Hawaii, which are small in size; for details, visit the Migration Policy Institute MPI Data Hub for an interactive map showing geographic distribution of immigrants by state and county, available online. Source : MPI tabulation of data from U. Census Bureau pooled ACS. These three metro areas accounted for about 43 percent of Chinese immigrants.

Figure 3. Note : Pooled ACS data were used to get statistically valid estimates at the metropolitan statistical-area level for smaller-population geographies. Table 1. Source : MPI tabulation of data from the U. Click here for an interactive map that highlights the metropolitan areas with the highest concentrations of immigrants.

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