✍️✍️✍️ The Importance Of Academic English
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25 Academic English Words You Should Know - Perfect for University, IELTS, and TOEFL
Discussion includes interrupting politely, asking questions, agreeing and disagreeing. More importantly, as well as teaching these language skills, knowledge of the language that is used in these skills in the students' specific subject areas is necessary and forms an essential component of EAP courses. EAP teachers normally believe that explicit knowledge of this language can be helpful. This includes knowledge of different text types oral and written and features of different genres, linking words, signposting expressions, and appropriate style. Students also need knowledge of various strategies that they can use in comprehending written and oral texts and producing essays and oral presentations.
As examinations and other forms of assessment are so important, knowledge of the format and language of exam questions is also necessary. The culture where the language is used in EAP is higher education, usually, but not necessarily, in an English speaking country. Therefore, knowledge of the academic culture is necessarily part of an EAP course and students and other learners need to be aware of differences between their own academic cultures and the culture where they are studying.
Writing conventions, such as organisation and use of sources, for example, can vary from country to country. Students in the UK, for example, need to develop a willingness to accept responsibility for their own learning and to be reflective and critical. Other areas of difficulty include use of names between lecturers and students, how and when to ask questions and how to deal with lateness and privacy. As well as knowledge of the higher education culture in the UK, there are subject specific cultures Hyland, that students and lecturers need to be aware of.
This applies to all students, not just students from other countries. This information can be obtained in many ways: for example, by looking at course documentation, looking at typical academic texts in the students' fields, looking at assessments, talking to course leaders, talking to subject lecturers, talking to students, looking at students' work and looking at test and examination results. This is all part of the necessary preparation for any English for Academic Purposes course and the EAP teacher needs to be able to carry out this kind of work. There is often discussion whether these two terms - EAP and study skills - mean the same. It is useful to make a distinction between general study skills that are not concerned with language and language study skills that will probably form part of an EAP course.
There are many study skills books available and they usually concentrate on matters such as where to study, when to study, time management, remembering, developing study habits, filing and organising books, how to spend leisure time and so on, although they do often deal with aspects of study skills that involve language such as planning essays and taking notes. These general study skills are obviously important to our students in higher education, but they are not usually the main objective of EAP courses. The main objective of EAP courses is to teach the language, both general academic language and subject specific language as well as language related practices such as summarising and writing introductions.
The language of the learners' academic subject and language related study skills will form the main component of the EAP skills classes. After EAP lecturers and course designers have obtained some knowledge of what the learner will eventually need, they need to look at where the learner is now, and so they have to analyse the learners' present performance and knowledge. There are various ways in which this can be done. Although, not EAP tests in the narrow sense, they are very widely used and provide some useful information.
It provides a systematic and continuously available system of assessing the English-language proficiency of non-native speakers who intend to study in the medium of English. A test report form gives details of the results of the test. Each sub-test is reported separately in the form of a band score. The individual sub-test band scores are added together and averaged to obtain an overall band score. Each band corresponds to a descriptive statement, which gives a summary of the English of a candidate classified at this level. The scale of bands increases from 1 to 9. This qualification is accepted by most British universities, who ask for levels of between 5.
The Test of English as a Foreign Language TOEFL is a single subject examination recognised in most countries of the world as an indication of English proficiency for placement of students in colleges and universities. At the moment, there are three versions of the test, depending on which part of the world the test is taken in:. As well as the commercial tests, there are many other kinds of tests available, many produced by university departments for their own use. Information about student performance can also be obtained, though, by talking to subject lecturers, examining student work, reading examiners reports or looking at exam marks, for example.
Furthermore, it is often felt that it is necessary to re-test the students once they arrive in the UK to obtain more detailed information about the students that broad-based test such as IELTS and TOEFL cannot provide. Because of the important focus on needs and analysis of needs, it might seem that EAP is very teacher centred, but this is certainly not the case. It is important to remember that as well as teaching language, we are also teaching human beings.
Therefore an EAP lecturer or course designer needs to be aware of different learning preferences and approaches. Selecting the teaching approach requires knowledge of educational policies and practices and how people learn. Most EAP teachers accept the need for some kind of input Krashen, This would usually be taken from the learners' subject areas. As EAP students are usually educated adults, it is normally assumed that some kind of conscious attentional processing - or noticing - is valuable Schmidt, That would almost certainly be followed by some kind of authentic EAP activity - pushed output Swain, , supported by teaching and guided practice where and when necessary.
This meshes well with Paul Nation's suggestion that in general: "the opportunities for learning language can be usefully divided into four strands: meaning-focused input, meaning-focused output, language-focused learning and fluency development" p. EAP textbooks are available which can be used to supplement and support the authentic materials from the students' subjects, but do not usually constitute the main part of the course.
For that reason EAP teaching is task based, using the types of academic task commonly found in higher education and writing classes are usually based on some kind of authentic extended writing task that the students do in their own time, with the help of in-class teaching, guided practice and individual tutorial support. Any explicit teaching is strongly focussed on what is needed for these tasks. Listening to lectures, and other students in seminar situations, is difficult for students. It is especially difficult for students to listen and take relevant notes.
A typical approach to teaching listening for academic purposes would involve doing large amounts of in-class listening, probably pre-recorded, helping the students to be more aware of typical language used in lectures, giving them guided practice as well as strategies for dealing with difficulties see, for example, Flowerdew, Teaching speaking has received the least amount of published research but see Weissberg, , but a typical approach to teaching spoken English for academic purposes would again be tasked based with students doing short guided exercises leading to taking part in realistic seminar discussions and giving oral presentations, both supported by class teaching and individual tutorials.
A recent article by Watson Todd has identified six main approaches to EAP: inductive learning, process syllabuses, learner autonomy, authenticity, technology and team teaching. EAP courses are very often Pre-Sessional courses. That is, they are taken before the learners' main academic courses start. Most universities in the UK offer these Pre-Sessional courses, which vary in length from one year to two weeks. The EAP courses frequently take place at the institution where the students intend to take their main academic course but this need not be the case.
These courses are intended to prepare students coming to study in higher education in the UK to study in English. They also allow students to familiarise themselves with the new environment and facilities of the institution before their main courses start. The students need to learn to adopt particular approaches to their study and learn strategies and skills that will enable them to succeed in the British higher education system.
The purpose of the Pre-Sessional EAP course is to bring the students up to the level that is necessary to start a course. In this case, EAP lecturers and course organisers need to liaise with admissions tutors to find out what is necessary. Some longer Pre-Sessional courses of up to, perhaps, one academic year - usually called Foundation courses for undergraduate preparation and Pre-Masters course for post-graduate - attempt to prepare lower level students for entry to higher education.
Many of these courses also include a quantity of academic subject content as well as EAP. EAP courses can also be In-Sessional courses. In-Sessional courses can take one of two forms. The general classes can be seen as language support classes - these are usually free drop-in classes held at lunch-times or Wednesday afternoons and students attend when they are able. Increasingly it is also becoming possible for students to take credit-bearing EAP courses as part of their degree. There is already much information and research published on target needs analysis. There is also a large amount of research available on testing and evaluation of students and of particular teaching methods.
Much of this research is in EAP. In a survey of EAP, Hamp-Lyons mentions needs analysis, analysis of linguistic and discoursal structures of academic texts for creating materials, effectiveness of teaching approaches, and assessment in EAP. But there is no mention of success; to what extent do our EAP programmes help our students and other learners succeed in their chosen academic fields. As well as this, methods and techniques to do this research were also looked at. See Gillett and Wray for more details. But more is needed and Lynch is a good starting point for someone who wants to carry out this kind of research.
Teaching EAP, therefore, involves developing in the learner - who could be a pre-undergraduate or a published research professor - the language and associated practices that they need in order to undertake study or work in English medium higher education. For that reason, it must start with the learner and the academic context in which they work or study. It is unlikely that a textbook will exist for such a narrowly specified audience, so it will always be necessary for the EAP teacher to be able to analyse contexts and language, understand learners' needs and develop materials that suit those contexts and needs. EAP lecturers are often interested in areas such as cross-cultural studies, academic and study skills development, learning styles, effective teaching methods, integration of students into the wider community, and international education.
However these field are of interest to all lecturers in higher education, and are not part of the defining characteristics of EAP. The defining characteristics of EAP , that set it aside from other subjects in higher education, are its focus on the language and associated practices that leaners need in order to undertake study or work in English medium higher education. EAP, therefore, takes the communicative needs of the learner in an academic context as central, and also uses the most modern methods and techniques available - although some of these may be years old or more Musumeci, Most publishers have some textbooks with titles related to EAP.
The main series of EAP textbooks are:. Cambridge University Press :. For developing vocabulary: Focus on Vocabulary. Mastering the Academic Word List. Alexander, O. EAP essentials: A teacher's guide to principles and practice. Reading: Garnet. Badger, R. A process genre approach to teaching writing. ELT Journal, 54, Basturkmen, H. In this journal, based. In Ms. Thus, learning English well is an important factor for students to study abroad. In addition, it is often claimed that vocabulary is the foundation of the language competence, thus insufficient academic vocabulary knowledge would be a key challenge for students to study. Most students spend much time on learning English vocabulary, but the result is not very good.
Therefore, it probably needs to find the most effective. Abstract The increasing number of English language learners has triggered great attention on how to teach academic content and literacy to English language learners in elementary and middle school classrooms. This article takes four instructions into account aiming at school practitioners involving vocabulary, writing, reading and collaborative conversation.
Also, the paper addresses the importance of using responsive literacy instructions for English language learners with learning disabilities. Transitioning from a grade school to a college student in writing is very limited. In English 5A, professor Michael Maniquiz introduces. The main points that will be outlined in this essay are the importance of becoming a critical thinker, verbal skill linked with academic writing and note taking skill is related to referencing skill. First year students need their fundamental study skills to build the necessary adjustments to. Academic writing can be puzzling. Ostensibly, it is still part of the English language, yet it often sounds so foreign in both vocabulary and style that it has to be learnt by even those most proficient at English, as though it is a distinct language.
Indeed, this steep learning curve is one that college students like myself have to confront in our first year in college as we step into the world of academic writing. The journey is not necessary smooth, however, for there are various myths that form. Designing and organizing English language teaching courses in English for Academic Purposes and other courses in English language teaching are different in some faces. They are similar in other faces in the same time. Since there are many different filed under the umbrella of English language teaching courses , I choose General English courses to compare it with English for Academic Purposes.
The main reason behind their differences is that they aim to serve different goals.All The Importance Of Academic English the world, the English language is the main language of the study of The Importance Of Academic English education system. First year students are Examples Of Democracy During Cold War unaware of what the difference is between an academic journal The Importance Of Academic English a The Importance Of Academic English magazine. Most EAP teachers accept the need for some kind of The Importance Of Academic English Krashen,