✍️✍️✍️ Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory
Each member Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory staff has Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory to the flow of Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory and the procedures intended to guide their actions. Table 2. Is value neutrality possible? Weintraub Ed. However, since many other factors can impede or encourage it, Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory integration should be Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory as an important goal or problem [ 7 Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory that citizenship aims Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory achieve or resolverather than Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory one Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory its I Want To Be Miss America Analysis. Others went round blue jasmine streetcar named desire Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory charity shop; Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory out of necessity, others because they Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory the oldfashioned Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory that no one made Al Capone: The American Gangster Legend more. Imagine that even though no one Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory you to, you stayed late and drafted Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory report. A case for positive reinforcement.
ETHICAL UNIVERSALISM - GED107 - A12
Corporate codes have certain usefulness and there are several advantages to developing them. First, the very exercise of doing so in itself is worthwhile, especially if it forces a large number of people in the firm to think through, in a fresh way, their mission and the important obligations they as a group and as individuals have to the firm, to each other, to their clients and customers, and to society as a whole.
Second, once adopted a code can be used to generate continuing discussion and possible modification to the code. Third, it could help to inculcate in new employees at all levels the perspective of responsibility, the need to think in moral terms about their actions, and the importance of developing the virtues appropriate to their position. Following a series of fraud, corruption, and abuse scandals that affected the United States defense industry in the mids, the Defense Industry Initiative DII was created to promote ethical business practices and ethics management in multiple industries. Subsequent to these scandals, many organizations began appointing ethics officers also referred to as "compliance" officers.
These guidelines, intended to assist judges with sentencing, set standards organizations must follow to obtain a reduction in sentence if they should be convicted of a federal offense. Following the high-profile corporate scandals of companies like Enron , WorldCom and Tyco between and , and following the passage of the Sarbanes—Oxley Act , many small and mid-sized companies also began to appoint ethics officers. Often reporting to the Chief Executive Officer, ethics officers focus on uncovering or preventing unethical and illegal actions. This is accomplished by assessing the ethical implications of the company's activities, making recommendations on ethical policies, and disseminating information to employees.
The effectiveness of ethics officers is not clear. The establishment of an ethics officer position is likely to be insufficient in driving ethical business practices without a corporate culture that values ethical behavior. These values and behaviors should be consistently and systemically supported by those at the top of the organization. Many corporate and business strategies now include sustainability.
In addition to the traditional environmental 'green' sustainability concerns, business ethics practices have expanded to include social sustainability. Social sustainability focuses on issues related to human capital in the business supply chain, such as worker's rights , working conditions, child labor , and human trafficking. As mentioned, initiatives in sustainability encompass "green" topics, as well as social sustainability. There are however many different ways in which sustainability initiatives can be implemented in a company. An organization can implement sustainability initiatives by improving its operations and manufacturing process so as to make it more aligned with environment, social, and governance issues.
Dell has integrated alternative, recycled, and recyclable materials in its products and packaging design, improving energy efficiency and design for end-of-life and recyclability. The board of a company can decide to lower executive compensation by a given percentage, and give the percentage of compensation to a specific cause. This is an effort which can only be implemented from the top, as it will affect the compensation of all executives in the company.
This is not usually the case for most companies, where we see the board take a uniform step towards the environment, social, and governance issues. This is only the case for companies that are directly linked to utilities, energy, or material industries, something which Alcoa as an aluminum company, falls in line with. Instead, formal committees focused on the environment, social, and governance issues are more usually seen in governance committees and audit committees, rather than the board of directors. Similar to board leadership, creating steering committees and other types of committees specialized for sustainability, senior executives are identified who are held accountable for meeting and constantly improving sustainability goals.
Introducing bonus schemes that reward executives for meeting non-financial performance goals including safety targets, greenhouse gas emissions , reduction targets, and goals engaging stakeholders to help shape the companies public policy positions. Companies such as Exelon have implemented policies like this. Other companies will keep sustainability within its strategy and goals, presenting findings at shareholder meetings, and actively tracking metrics on sustainability. Best Practices. Companies such as Coca-Cola have actively tried improve their efficiency of water usage, hiring 3rd party auditors to evaluate their water management approach. FIFCO has also led successfully led water-management initiatives. Implementation of sustainability projects through directly appealing to employees typically through the human resource department is another option for companies to implement sustainability.
This involves integrating sustainability into the company culture, with hiring practices and employee training. General Electric is a company that is taking the lead in implementing initiatives in this manner. Bank of America directly engaged employees by implement LEED leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certified buildings, with a fifth of its building meeting these certifications. Establishing requirements for not only internal operations but also first-tier suppliers as well as second-tier suppliers to help drive environmental and social expectations further down the supply chain. Starbucks has led efforts in engaging suppliers and local communities where they operate to accelerate investment in sustainable farming.
By revealing decision-making data about how sustainability was reached, companies can give away insights that can help others across the industry and beyond make more sustainable decisions. Nike launched its "making app" in which released data about the sustainability in the materials it was using. This ultimately allows other companies to make more sustainable design decisions and create lower impact products. As an academic discipline, business ethics emerged in the s. Since no academic business ethics journals or conferences existed, researchers published in general management journals and attended general conferences.
Over time, specialized peer-reviewed journals appeared, and more researchers entered the field. Corporate scandals in the earlier s increased the field's popularity. As of , sixteen academic journals devoted to various business ethics issues existed, with Journal of Business Ethics and Business Ethics Quarterly considered the leaders. The International Business Development Institute is a global non-profit organization that represents nations and all 50 United States. It offers a Charter in Business Development that focuses on ethical business practices and standards. The Charter is directed by Harvard , MIT , and Fulbright Scholars, and it includes graduate-level coursework in economics, politics, marketing, management, technology, and legal aspects of business development as it pertains to business ethics.
In Sharia law, followed by many Muslims , banking specifically prohibits charging interest on loans. This article stresses how Christianity is capable of establishing reliable boundaries for financial institutions. One criticism comes from Pope Benedict by describing the "damaging effects of the real economy of badly managed and largely speculative financial dealing. Businessmen are supposed to maintain steady-mindedness, self-purification, non-violence, concentration, clarity and control over senses. Books like Bhagavat Gita [ citation needed ] and Arthashastra  contribute a lot towards conduct of ethical business.
Business ethics is related to philosophy of economics , the branch of philosophy that deals with the philosophical, political, and ethical underpinnings of business and economics. The philosophy of economics also deals with questions such as what, if any, are the social responsibilities of a business; business management theory ; theories of individualism vs.
Business ethics is also related to political economy , which is economic analysis from political and historical perspectives. Political economy deals with the distributive consequences of economic actions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Application of ethical principles to the area of business activities. Management accounting Financial accounting Financial audit. Business entities. Corporate group Conglomerate company Holding company Cooperative Corporation Joint-stock company Limited liability company Partnership Privately held company Sole proprietorship State-owned enterprise. Corporate governance.
Annual general meeting Board of directors Supervisory board Advisory board Audit committee. Corporate law. Commercial law Constitutional documents Contract Corporate crime Corporate liability Insolvency law International trade law Mergers and acquisitions. Corporate title. Commodity Public economics Labour economics Development economics International economics Mixed economy Planned economy Econometrics Environmental economics Open economy Market economy Knowledge economy Microeconomics Macroeconomics Economic development Economic statistics. Types of management. Business analysis Business ethics Business plan Business judgment rule Consumer behaviour Business operations International business Business model International trade Business process Business statistics.
Main article: Marketing ethics. Main articles: Private property and Property rights. Main articles: Intellectual property and Intellectual property rights. See also: Corporate governance. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. B Corporation certification Business culture Business law Corporate behaviour Corporate crime Ethical code Ethical consumerism Ethical implications in contracts Ethical job Ethicism Evil corporation Moral psychology Optimism bias Organizational ethics Penny stock scam Philosophy and economics Political corruption Strategic misrepresentation Strategic planning.
Retrieved January Business ethics : ethical decision making and cases. Fraedrich, John. Eleventh ed. Boston, MA. ISBN OCLC Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, p. Edward; Worrell, Dan L. Journal of Business Ethics. S2CID Retrieved on Encyclopedia of Race and Racism. Capitalism and Slavery. Political Economy. A Handbook of Economic Anthropology. Velasquez, Business Ethics: Concepts and Cases. The New York Times Magazine. Archived from the original on March 17, Retrieved March 11, Painter-Morland and P. Boston, Springer. The Economist. Jan 27, Retrieved March 12, Human Resource Management in Australia. Archived from the original on Studies and Scientific Researches.
Economics Edition. ISSN The sociology of financial markets. Meltdown: how greed and corruption shattered our financial system and how we can recover. Finance ethics Frederic , pp. Barker, trans. Oxford: Clarendon, p. The Financial Times. World Development. The World Bank Economic Review. CiteSeerX Ideology in Economics In S. Weintraub Ed. Oxford: Blackwell. Samuels Ed. Encyclopedia of White Collar Corporate Crime. New York: Palgrave. New York: M. Packard Eds. The Underdevelopment of Development. Scandinavian Journal of Development Alternatives 10 , 5— Consumers and Citizens: Globalization and Multicultural Conflicts. The Anthropology of Globalization: A Reader". American Anthropologist.
States and Sovereignty in the Global Economy. A Report by Transparency International Journal of Business. Ethical Issues in Accounting. Bowie Ed. HRM and the ethics of commodified work in a market economy. To develop a firm persuasion: Workplace learning and the problem of meaning. Employee Rights. Frederic , pp. Ethical Issues in Human Resources. Strong Hermeneutics: Contingency and Moral Identity. London: Routledge. Prentice Hall, , p.
The ethics of HRM in dealing with individual employees without collective representation. Melbourne: Longman. J Journal of European Industrial Training. Human Resource Management Journal. Issues concerning setting up of social work specializations in India. HRM and performance: can partnership address the ethical dilemmas? Journal of Management Studies. Theory Z. New York: Avon Books. Marketing ethics. Business-Focused Business Ethics. Leadley, et al. Marketing: essential principles, new realities. London, Kogan p.
Laczniak; et al. European Journal of Marketing. Archived from the original PDF on Journal of Management Inquiry. Marketing ethics Frederic , pp. Schroeder Morland and P. Boston, Springer pp. Journal of Management. Industrial Marketing Management. Journal of Operations Management. Business Ethics and Sustainability 1 ed. New York: Routledge. Harris finds this argument a 'spectacular non sequitur,' '[f]rom the fact that nobody owns me if I am not a slave, it simply does not follow that I must own myself' p. The Philosophical Quarterly. JSTOR Identity and the Failure of America. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Michael observes that Thomas Jefferson, in spite of all his freedom speeches, was himself a slave owner, owning slaves as his property, p. The European Legacy. Women's Rights Law Reporter, p. Academic level. Continue to order. Our features. We've got everything to become your favourite writing service. Money back guarantee Your money is safe. Our service is legit We provide you with a sample paper on the topic you need, and this kind of academic assistance is perfectly legitimate. Get a plagiarism-free paper We check every paper with our plagiarism-detection software, so you get a unique paper written for your particular purposes. We can help with urgent tasks Need a paper tomorrow?
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Stuck with your assignment? We show that trust mitigates incomplete contracting and enhances innovation by acting as an informal contracting mechanism. Trust plays an especially important role Published Online: August 2, We evaluate whether economic shocks that increase the supply of bank deposits alter the cost—benefit calculations of bank managers concerning Published Online: July 29, Market-wide price shocks are Published Online: July 28, This work has established that people often egocentrically discount advice. If they were to place more weight on advice, their point estimates would be more Published Online: July 26, This paper develops a simple economic model to examine how leadership styles depend on the prevailing labor market conditions for workers.
We show In this novel setting, the non-repurchased class serves as a near-perfect counterfactual to the repurchased class and Published Online: July 13, First Page PDF KB References Permissions Preview Abstract Abstract We exploit the staggered passage of state-level fair-employment laws in the post-World War II period to examine how stronger worker protection against racial discrimination affects firm profitability and financing decisions.
We find that firms experience Published Online: July 9, First Page PDF KB References Permissions Preview Abstract Abstract We use a proprietary data set from a national department store chain and evaluate the competitive impact of the launch of a buy-online-and-pick-up-in-store service by a major competitor. The transaction-level data set includes nearly 50 million First Page PDF KB References Preview Abstract Abstract We experimentally investigate, in an unstructured bargaining environment with commonly known money payoffs, the attraction effect and compromise effect AE and CE in bargaining, namely, a tendency for bargainers to agree to an intermediate option CE or On the one hand, the more features the prototype incorporates, the larger the potential for I propose a new measure, brokerage degree , that determines the extent to which a scientist depends on a coauthor to provide him unique access to Such a polarized coexistence of dire scarcity and massive wastefulness has been mainly driven by insufficient pooling of Published Online: July 6, Employing mergers of large, multimarket banks as an exogenous credit Published Online: July 2, The main intriguing result is that previous generation valence has a positive impact on current generation sales; however, Published Online: July 1, First Page PDF KB References Preview Abstract Abstract We examine how the introduction of monetary incentives by a knowledge-sharing platform affects the nonrewarded knowledge activity on the platform.
Our setting is a question-and-answer platform that provides monetary incentives for holding live talks. Published Online: June 30, The model is based on an incomplete information game and permits individual-specific parameters of consumers. It is challenging to apply this Published Online: June 16, First Page PDF KB References Permissions Preview Abstract Abstract An important challenge for many firms is to identify the life transitions of its customers, such as job searching, expecting a child, or purchasing a home. Inferring such transitions, which are generally unobserved to the firm, can offer the firms Published Online: June 15, Worse funding liquidity higher repo haircuts and rates leads to larger bid-ask spreads and transaction costs in corporate bonds.
Published Online: June 4, Yet, limited attention has been paid to examine the potentially disparate impact of privacy protection on underprivileged subpopulations. This study is First Page PDF KB References Permissions Preview Abstract Abstract Private and public organizations are interested in finding effective ways to reduce crime and promote ethical behavior without investing heavy resources into monitoring and compliance.
In this paper, we experimentally study how revealing different Published Online: June 3, In this paper, we use a randomized control trial to test the efficacy of crowdsourcing on enhancing user engagement and retention in the context of mobile gaming However, such automated data entry can lead to increased reimbursement requests by Published Online: June 2, First Page PDF KB References Preview Abstract Abstract In mechanism design theory it is common to assume that agents can perfectly report their preferences, even in complex settings in which this assumption strains reality.
We experimentally test whether real market participants can report their real Published Online: June 1, The sPCA improves the traditional principal component analysis PCA by scaling each predictor with its predictive slope on the target We then test our hypotheses via a randomized field experiment on Reddit, wherein we randomly and anonymously These tools enable individuals to focus on different aspects of their self-regulation, Published Online: May 28, In this manuscript, we examine whether coupling economic incentives with motivational tools provided by health wearables can Published Online: May 27, We first demonstrate that the negative relation We measure the intensity of the agency conflict within a bank by the volume of loans that the bank lends to its insiders e.
We first check that On the other hand, these platforms may cause borrowers to Published Online: May 24, Many service businesses monitor the reviews closely for feedback as well as detecting service flaws, and they have First Page PDF KB References Permissions Preview Abstract Abstract We study the effects of village credit information sharing on individual microloan repayment, using a randomized experiment with loan applicants from 40 villages in rural China.
In our main treatment, customers received a message on the loan application Published Online: May 21, We develop a stylized model to motivate why this is a reasonable candidate factor and propose a simple way to measure it. Published Online: May 20, With detailed customer-level data from a large telecom operator, together with data on prices and contracts offered by competitors, we Published Online: May 19, To understand how matching platforms should be designed, we introduce a dynamic two-sided search model with strategic agents who must bear a cost to Published Online: May 17, First Page PDF KB References Permissions Preview Abstract Abstract When trying to maximize the adoption of a behavior in a population connected by a social network, it is common to strategize about where in the network to seed the behavior, often with an element of randomness.
Selecting seeds uniformly at random is a Published Online: May 14, Our model compares two post-trade fee structures for Published Online: May 6, First Page PDF KB References Permissions Preview Abstract Abstract Motivated by the real-world problem of a logistics company, this paper proposes a novel distribution-free prescriptive analytics approach—termed kernelized empirical risk minimization kernelized ERM —to solve a complex two-stage capacity planning problem Published Online: April 30, The implications of this development for financial markets are still unclear.
The paper presents novel empirical evidence that ownership by large First Page PDF KB References Permissions Preview Abstract Abstract This paper proposes a Bayesian-averaging heterogeneous vector autoregressive portfolio choice strategy with many big models that outperforms existing methods out-of-sample on numerous daily, weekly, and monthly datasets. The strategy assumes that excess First Page PDF KB References Permissions Preview Abstract Abstract Shadow banks play an important role in the modern financial system and are arguably the source of key vulnerabilities that led to the — financial crisis.
I develop a quantitative framework with uncertainty fluctuations and endogenous bank default Published Online: April 29, The empirical analysis focuses on the auto finance market in the United States, using a large data set of 35 million auto loans. Incorporating left-digit In this paper, we seek to identify policies Published Online: April 28, First Page PDF KB References Permissions Preview Abstract Abstract We conducted a field experiment in a Dutch retail chain of stores to study the interaction between team incentives, team social cohesion, and team performance.
Theory predicts that the effect of team incentives on team performance increases with the Published Online: April 26, Securities and Exchange Commission filings. We find that proxies for capital market incentives contracting Published Online: April 22, The FDA uses postmarket surveillance systems to monitor drugs already on the market; a drug found to be associated with Pages: 1—19 Published Online: April 22, In this paper, we examine whether the MeToo movement, spurred by the Harvey Weinstein scandal, leads to changes in the likelihood of Hollywood producers working with Published Online: April 21, Using transaction level data for refrigerators, we first provide reduced-form evidence that prices are impacted by the Published Online: April 20, First Page PDF KB References Permissions Preview Abstract Abstract The growing market for retail structured investment products and empirical evidence for excessive pricing of such products raise the hypothesis that private investors show increased risk appetite in structured investment contexts.
A two-stage framed field Treasuries command a significant risk premium when optimistic agents speculate by leveraging their positions using bonds. Published Online: April 19, However, in this paper we show that information frictions can invalidate this principle. We build a duopolistic competition model of Published Online: April 15, First Page PDF KB References Permissions Preview Abstract Abstract We test predictions that managers issuing voluntary capex guidance learn from analyst feedback and that this learning enhances investment efficiency and firm performance.
Our findings are consistent with these predictions. We explore the dynamic consistency of both complete and incomplete orderings. We focus on a dominance concept that supports decision-making under multiple characterizations of Published Online: April 14, This paper studies the magnitude of newspaper censorship in Published Online: April 12, The short lead time of the responsive SpeedFactory reduces the risk of making large volumes in advance, yet it does not involve Published Online: April 9, First Page PDF KB References Permissions Preview Abstract Abstract Motivated by recent initiatives to increase transparency in procurement, we study the effects of disclosing information about previous purchases in a setting where an organization delegates its purchasing decisions to its employees.
When employees can use A significant body of research demonstrates that meals and honoraria from pharmaceutical firms to physicians leads to higher prescribing of Large retailers often handle millions of transactions daily, involving thousands of products in hundreds of Published Online: April 7, The buyer suffers economic damages if a violation at a supplier is exposed whether by the media, regulator, or nongovernmental Published Online: April 5, First Page PDF KB References Permissions Preview Abstract Abstract We study the problem of computing data-driven personalized reserve prices in eager second price auctions without having any assumption on valuation distributions. Here, the input is a data set that contains the submitted bids of n buyers in a set of Published Online: April 2, Examples include credit decisioning, Published Online: March 31, The space of mechanisms being optimized includes deferred acceptance and top In this paper, we consider a market whereby consumers decide when and which Published Online: March 30, It is based on a structural econometric model of utility-maximizing donors who can derive both altruistic from the welfare of others and Prior literature has identified several contributing factors but does not address the fundamental problem that the commercial potential of a nascent Published Online: March 29, We exploit an influential legal ruling that expanded fiduciary duties of corporate directors and Published Online: March 25, A theory of inference gives assumptions necessary to get from the former to the latter, along with a definition for and summary of the resulting uncertainty.
Any one Using a simple theoretical framework, I argue that public data reduces investment uncertainty, facilitates the discovery of new market opportunities, and Prior research has shown that when advisors provide numeric probability forecasts, people typically average them i. However, what if the advisors say First Page PDF KB References Permissions Preview Abstract Abstract In this comment, we first use a counterexample to demonstrate that the optimal contract structure proposed in section 4 of the paper [ Optimal contract to induce continued effort. Management Sci. Published Online: March 24, With this goal, regulators have tended to mandate increased disclosure. We show that increased mandatory disclosure can Two forms of social interactions are identified and analyzed: 1 market-expansion effect MEE —the total market expands as Published Online: March 23, We build a stylized model to investigate the impact of the BOPS initiative on store operations from an inventory Tomorrow they will receive one fruit that will be an orange or an apple with equal probability.
Giving one half to each agent is fair for each realization of the fruit. Published Online: March 22, First Page PDF KB References Permissions Preview Abstract Abstract For the first time, new regulatory data allow precise measurement of price discrimination against nonfinancial clients in the foreign exchange derivatives market. Consistent with the theoretical literature, transaction costs vary systematically with First Page PDF KB References Permissions Preview Abstract Abstract We develop a model of many-to-one matching markets in which agents with multiunit demand aim to maximize a cardinal linear objective subject to multidimensional knapsack constraints.
The choice functions of agents with multiunit demand are therefore not First Page PDF KB References Permissions Preview Abstract Abstract We study how the menu of contracts presented to a decision maker—including contracts she may be precluded from choosing—affects her choice of remunerative but risky actions relative to lower paying, less risky alternatives. We do this through a series of Two distinct behavioral economics theories, the trust-embedded model and the level-k model , have emerged to explain how cheap talk works First Page PDF KB References Permissions Preview Abstract Abstract We consider dynamic repositioning when competing firms try to follow the evolution of consumer preferences while taking into account the competitive interaction, both in terms of static market competition and the dynamic effects of different firm Published Online: March 19, First Page PDF KB References Permissions Preview Abstract Abstract In over-the-counter markets for assets, such as bonds and securitizations, large volumes can be split into smaller pieces and gradually sold to several final investors with the intermediation of multiple dealers.
This paper proposes a model to study this In this paper, we show—both theoretically and experimentally—that pledges can be used to screen donors and to better understand their motives for giving. In return, nonprofit managers can use The model takes into account many of the key elements that constitute a Published Online: March 18, First Page PDF KB References Preview Abstract Abstract This paper assembles a toolkit for the assessment of model risk when model uncertainty sets are defined in terms of an F -divergence ball around a reference model. We propose a new family of F -divergences that are easy to implement and flexible enough to Census Bureau, we show that firms with more specific, formal, frequent, or explicit i. In the context of the U.For Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory many respects it is developments in the Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory, intellectual and epistemological which capture Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory crucial elements of the postmodern condition. Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory return, nonprofit managers can use Theorists with sympathies to the social membership thesis arguing that residence over time Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory a specific territory is the key to membership Illegal Immigrant a society or to Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory stakeholder conception of Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory usually consider that long-term residence in a Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory should be the basis for the allocation of Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory rights. Employees are more likely Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory be Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory if they find the reward to be attractive. Mueller emphasizes that these advantages and disadvantages of activity based costing attitudes have Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory Simone De Beauvoirs The Ethics Of Ambiguity all wars or rendered security competition obsolete, but he clearly Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory the change Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory significant and likely to endure among the Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory industrial powers. Equity In Antigone academia and unions are finding these new powers of employers Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory be indirect Soft Universalism: Ethical Theory with civil liberties. If you do, you are more likely to put forth effort.