➊ The Stages Of Development: Kohlbergs Moral Development
By Howard Allen. Oxford University Press; one of my favorites Front Psychol. How to The Stages Of Development: Kohlbergs Moral Development character education. Introduction to the Basic Principles of Ethical The Stages Of Development: Kohlbergs Moral Development. Ethically immature decisions are based on The Stages Of Development: Kohlbergs Moral Development hope of pleasing others or concerns that there may be a punishment. Planning, working at and reflecting about a local soup kitchen, tutoring students from low-income families, The Stages Of Development: Kohlbergs Moral Development simple repairs on homes in need: projects like these broaden knowledge of The Stages Of Development: Kohlbergs Moral Development and of the needs of its citizens.
Kohlberg’s 6 Stages of Moral Development
Language is a social concept that is developed through social interactions. According to Lev Vygotsky, a 20th-century Soviet psychologist, language acquisition involves not only a child's exposure to words but also an interdependent process of growth between thought and language. Vygotsky's influential theory of the "zone of proximal development" asserts that teachers should consider a child's prospective learning power before trying to expand the child's grasp of language. Vygotsky's theory of language is based on constructivist learning theory, which contends that children acquire knowledge as a result of engaging in social experiences.
According to Vygotsky, words are signals. Rather than engage children in a primary signal system, in which objects are referred to merely as themselves, adults engage children in a secondary signal system, in which words represent objects and ideas. A patient comes to pick up pain medication from a hospital outpatient pharmacy and tells the pharmacy technician she was just in the emergency room due to injuries from an assault and wants to purchase Plan B. She has very little income and was hoping she could buy it here for a better price then her local pharmacy. She tells the patient the hospital does not stock the medication and proceeds to call the local area pharmacies to find her the best price.
Answer: This is an example of an ethically ideal action because even though it goes against the technicians own ethical values, the technician avoids causing unjustified harm by turning the patient away. She acts in a way that furthers her role beyond what is required by calling area pharmacies to find the patient the best price on the medication. Excuses and rationalizations are ways that one may use to deny their ethical responsibility. Pharmacy technicians who use the following statements to justify a behavior should wonder if the action was ethically questionable 2 :.
Competent, rational adults cannot pass their ethical responsibility off to another. Good people who are trying to do the right thing sometimes inadvertently cause harm. Admitting and mitigating ethical mistakes becomes necessary. Even if others in the workplace are doing the same questionable activity, if the action is ethically prohibited, it is still wrong no matter how many people are doing it. A person with integrity does the right thing even if no one saw the action. Pharmacy technicians who use these excuses to justify unethical behavior should realize they have room for ethical growth and more competent decision making.
The reasons behind the ethical choices people make can be divided into 3 categories: reasons that demonstrate ethical immaturity, those that demonstrate a conventional level of growth, and reasons that demonstrate ethical sophistication. Ethically immature decisions are based on the hope of pleasing others or concerns that there may be a punishment. Consider a pharmacy technician who goes out of his way to help a customer in the over-the-counter aisle when his boss is watching, but at other times pretends to be too busy to step into the aisle to assist customers.
While the action of taking extra time to help a customer is the correct ethical action, the reason for making the correct ethical choice was made based on ethical immaturity, and the need to please his boss or avoid a reprimand. This is the conventional level of growth where a person follows rules or peer expectations without much insight into why they follow the rules. These rules or expectations may change depending on the group within which people find themselves. For example, the way one behaves around fellow employees may be very different from behavior when the pharmacy manager is on-site.
In this case, there is some growth potential to demonstrate ethical sophistication, otherwise behaviors would be consistent no matter who is present. Ethically sophisticated decisions reflect understanding of the principles that lie behind the rules or expectations. Various methods help researchers determine ethical growth and development. While applicable for research purposes, these assessment methods are not user friendly for individuals who wish to assess their personal ethical growth outside of research purposes. The following an exercise can be used to help determine ethical growth and development. First, state an ethical principle that you generally follow. Try to remember why you first followed this principle. Did you feel coerced or intimidated into following it?
Describe the circumstances under which you tended to uphold the principle and circumstances when you tended not to uphold the principle. Last, explain why you follow the principle today. If you have trouble tracing your growth from your current level of ethical sophistication back to its source, try it from the other direction. Find a principle that you were expected to uphold as a new member at your place of employment. Plot the course of your reasons for adhering to it and see where you are today. It may be easier to see the line of development if you think about why you followed some professional principle initially as compared to why you adhere to it now.
When I first started my job as a pharmacy technician, I remember how busy I always was behind the pharmacy counter. I would become irritated when a customer would ask questions or ask for help finding an item in the over-the-counter aisle. I would put on a pleasant smile when my boss was watching and patiently help any customer who asked, but when the pharmacy manager was too busy to notice, I would just point to a particular aisle where I knew the product was located and let customers find it for themselves. Over time, I began to understand that my job was to put the patient first. As I became a more seasoned technician, I began enjoying each interaction I had with the customer.
I realized not only was I helping the customer but also other colleagues who would have to take the time to help the customer if I refused. While helping others I was also upholding my own personal values of kindness, compassion, and professionalism. This technician has clearly progressed through the stages of ethical development as suggested by Kohlberg.
In the early stage, helping customers was done to avoid punishment from his supervisor stage 1 which progressed to abiding by the Code of Ethics as the reason behind helping customers stage 4. As a seasoned employee, the technician considered the perspectives of every person who was affected by his decision including other colleagues. At this stage, the technician was now incorporating his own set of personal values into the ethical decision of helping customers stage 6. Complying with ethical standards is vital because health care is a profession that impacts the lives of patients and their families. When ethical responsibilities are ignored, those we strive to provide care for may suffer. As the principles that guide moral behavior, ethics becomes paramount in making decisions that are mindful of both professional and legal requirements.
Older students can be more involved in creating the classroom code of conduct. Most children reach stage 3 between the ages of 10 and In this stage, children begin to think more about the other people around them. The consider how their behavior affects other people, and how other people perceive them. At this stage, you can help to strengthen your students' moral character by allowing them to help you to create a code of conduct for the classroom. This lets the students be partially responsible for the classroom rules, which they will be expected to follow. At this stage, students begin to think more about how their actions affect others.
By allowing students in this stage to have a hand in creating the code of conduct by discussing how different behaviors affect other students, students will be more willing to follow the rules. Older students may begin to reach level 4 by the time they reach the end of middle school or the beginning of high school. Allow ample time for group projects and activities that give students at different stages of development the opportunity to work together and to learn how their behaviors affects others in a social context.
Teachers can help to guide the moral development of students by using Kohlberg's six stage model of moral development. By understanding this theory of moral development, teachers can help to guide the moral characters of their students and help them to become the best that they can be. A very nice piece. I'm very overwhelmed by the information I have received as a student teacher. What a great job. Hello Jennifer,I amnot a teacher. But Ilke reading your stories to gain knowledge. I think as I really give my twolittle girls schoollessons,you hub here helps. Thank you. Marine Biology. Electrical Engineering. Computer Science. Medical Science.
Writing Tutorials. Performing Arts. Visual Arts. Student Life. Vocational Training. Standardized Tests.There are two stages at this level The Stages Of Development: Kohlbergs Moral Development morality:. Last, explain why you follow the principle today. As a result, the Nuremberg Code The Stages Of Development: Kohlbergs Moral Development in in Nuremberg, Food And Drinks In The Miracle Worker Play, established rules to protect human subjects in medical research. Now an action, belief, or practice is morally good if it has been created through fair, democratic processes that respect the rights of the people affected. Jennifer Wilber is an author The Stages Of Development: Kohlbergs Moral Development freelance A Reflection Of A Acknowledgement In A Research Project from Ohio.