⚡ Sigmund Freuds Precis Of The Foundations Of Psychoanalysis

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Sigmund Freuds Precis Of The Foundations Of Psychoanalysis



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What is Psychoanalysis?

A short summary of this paper. Some of the roots of psychoanalysis and their contemporary relevance are addressed: neurological ideas, the discussions of the sexologists, and the degeneration theories at the turn of the twentieth century. Factors which led to the dominance of psychoanalysis in psychiatry included, in particular, its arguments against the hopelessness of degeneracy theories; yet, by isolating itself from mainstream academic psychiatry and psychology, organized psychoanalysis itself contributed to its own subsequent marginalization.

Keywords Biopsychosocial integration, degeneracy theories, psychoanalysis, psychodynamic empirical studies, Sigmund Freud Introduction My formal education as a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst was completed as the final quarter of the twentieth century began, and psychoanalysis and psychodynamic psychotherapy erroneously still considered to be not subject to rigorous empirical evaluation began to lose their place as vital to psychiatric education and practice; and, furthermore, psychoanalytic ideas have been marginalized in the general scientific community Bornstein, Until the last two decades, systematic empirical research findings have been almost universally ignored in psycho- analytic clinical education.

By eschewing the value for clinical work of systematic research, psy- choanalysis has insulated itself from the rest of the scientific world. Email: hoffman. It is as though she had adopted my procedure and was making use of our conversation, apparently unconstrained and guided by chance, as a supple- ment to her hypnosis. Breuer and Freud, 56 A concept coined by contemporary neuroscientists, SIT stimulus independent thoughts is virtu- ally identical to the concept of free associations. The potential or actual equivalence of SIT with free associations is not cited in the study Mason et al.

A contemporary experimental study which identifies the neurological concomitants of a basic psychoanalytic concept illustrates how far we have come since , when Freud attempted to develop a comprehensive dynamic neurological theory of psychological functioning Freud, Unfortunately, most psychiatrists do not appreciate the important functional and theoretical con- nections between psychoanalytic and contemporary neuroscience constructs, despite greater appre- ciation in the last decade Kandell, , On the other hand, many leading psychoanalysts have contributed to the effacement of impor- tant psychoanalytic ideas from mainstream science by isolating themselves from the general scien- tific academy.

Fonagy , for example, has critiqued this isolation in the psychoanalytic community which can only be addressed by greater incorporation in the education and practice of systematic empirical work. Fonagy maintains: It has been powerfully argued that free association and free-floating attention are the hallmark of the prescribed method of psychoanalytic data gathering Green, Only facts gathered by these means are admissible to a psychoanalytic knowledge base; only psychoanalytic therapy can meaning- fully contribute to the development of psychoanalytic theory.

The general adoption of this strategy would imply that psychoanalysis exists in isolation from disciplines that do not use these methods — in other words, all other disciplines. The argument that psychoanalytic observations concerning human behavior are in some sense incommensurate with any other form of observation seems unten- able. The mind remains the mind whether it is on the couch or in the laboratory. Yet many perhaps one could speculate most respected psychoanalytic clinicians express skepticism about this self- evident truth. Hoffman Reviewing aspects of the historical development of psychoanalytic ideas in America, its impact on psychiatry, and subsequent marginalization can help us reintegrate psychoanalytic ideas within mainstream psychiatry.

Psychoanalytic ideas generated tremendous excitement because of its unique approach to the under- standing of the whole person and subsequent treatment decisions. Reviewing some of the ideas from that time can help us to develop a true biopsychosocial model Engel, , in the present. All of these factors are relevant to contemporary psychiatry. This was the case for hysteria, neurasthenia and obsessions nervous disorders as well as for psychotic disorders, schizophrenia dementia praecox and manic-depressive psychosis. In addition, a scourge of the time was syphilis, including the neurological manifestations of tertiary syphilis. Freud was immersed in the neurological theo- ries and treatments of the time. He treated many middle-class Viennese patients who suffered from syphilis, including the father of his famous hysterical patient, Dora Freud, a; Decker, Among many neurological writings, Freud wrote two important monographs: on paralyses in children Freud, a: and on the nature of language disturbances secondary to anatomical insults to the brain Freud, b.

Instead, Freud hypothesized a dynamic interplay among various areas of the brain in contrast to the static localization theory. The limited knowledge of the day thwarted these efforts, and Freud turned his attention to the development of purely psychological theories. Yet Freud retained the deep conviction of the impor- tance of the interplay between the manifest psychological and the underlying physical processes. These ideas from over a century ago clearly articulate the dynamic interplay among the various regions of the brain and the interdependence of psychology and brain anatomy.

The sexologists The sexologists at the turn of the last century promoted a sharp demarcation between normal and abnormal. Ellis called attention to the importance of the connection between hysteria and sexuality Freud, With his revolutionary method of listening to patients talk about their symptoms and their lives, Freud heard about childhood experiences, particularly sexual feelings and fantasies. This led to the conclusion that there was an association between those pleasures and the pleasure from genital sexuality.

Freud noted the similarity between the sexual fantasies of children and those involved in perversions, and between perversions and what persists in the unconscious lives of all us. He concluded that in everyday life, sexual fantasies may be expressed as symptoms, in dreams, slips of the tongue, and in art productions. The role of infantile sexuality, conceived as sexual pleasure in a broad sense rather than just pleasurable genital sensations, has been the most controversial Freudian concept. Hoffman Whether considering sexuality or mental disturbance, Freud argued against the categorical approach to psychological phenomena, a discussion quite familiar to our contemporary ears, includ- ing considerations, well ahead of his time, of masculinity and femininity.

It is possible to distinguish at least three uses. Freud, b: fn [added ] This brief footnote highlights one of the most important contributions of psychoanalytic theory: psychological phenomena are more usefully conceptualized in a dimensional rather than in a categorical manner. For instance, are sexual deviations innate or acquired? The focus on degeneracy and on organic causes of mental disorders inevitably led to a great deal of pessimism with regard to treatment.

Such organic theories were promulgated by the most important leader in psychiatry of his time: Emil Kraepelin — Kraepelin , developed a careful descriptive diagnostic schema of mental illnesses, including the differentiation between schizophrenia — dementia praecox — and manic- depression. For example, Freud wrote: That the assumption has been made of a special neuropathic disposition which, incidentally, if it existed, would not leave much hope of success for the treatment of such pathological conditions.

The neuropathic disposition itself is regarded as a sign of a general degeneracy, and thus this convenient technical term has come to be superabundantly used against the wretched patients whom the doctors are quite incapable of helping. Fortunately, the state of affairs is different. The neuropathic disposition does no doubt exist, but I must deny that it suffices for the creation of a psychoneurosis. I must further deny that the conjunction of a neuropathic disposition with precipitating causes occurring in later life constitutes an adequate aetiology of the psychoneuroses. This proved to be a significant message because it allowed for the psychological exploration of specific childhood antecedents. Unfortunately, on the one hand, psychoanalysis was overvalued almost as a panacea for every social and individual ill ; on the other hand, the findings of clinical psychoanalysis were not integrated with the rest of science.

When neurobiology caught up with psychoanalysis, it became clear that for many disorders particular brain functions could be identified and for many disorders biological treatments were significantly more effective than psychological interventions. In the middle of the twentieth century, many chairs of psychiatry in the USA were psychoana- lysts: 40 — at a third of all medical schools — in the s Shapiro, By the number of psychoanalysts who were chairs declined to 21 and by to 12 Luber and Michels, So, in a mere 40 years the number of psychoanalysts in key academic psychiatric positions declined by almost four-fold. The wheel has come full circle where psycho-social aetiological factors and psychological interventions have come to be devalued, or at best considered of secondary importance; organic aetiological agents and somatic treatments are overvalued, despite assertions that an integrated approach to theory and treatment is extant.

As I highlight below, contemporary psychiatry and psychoanalysis have the opportunity to develop a meaningful integration of modern cognitive science and neuroscience with the insights gleaned from a psychoanalytic perspective, first summarized by Freud in his Clark University lectures. The Clark Lectures:2 arguments against degeneracy G. Stanley Hall — , a pioneer in American psychology, received the first doctorate in psychology from Harvard under the supervision of William James — ; he was founder of the American Psychological Association and the American Journal of Psychology; and he wrote a pioneering book on adolescence Hall, He was President of Clark University, in Worcester, Massachusetts, and invited Freud, Carl Jung — and others to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the founding of Clark.

This event, the first official acceptance of psychoanaly- sis in America3 Paskauskas, 19fn , included the presentation of honorary degrees to Freud and Jung. You see, we both of us had nothing, or more precisely, I had a large and impoverished family and she a small inheritance of roughly fl. But unfortunately things went so well in Vienna that I decided to stay on, and we were married in the autumn of the same year.

McGuire, —21 Despite this humble communication, Freud himself, like others such as Eugen Bleuler — , heralded his discoveries to be comparable to that of Copernicus, that the earth was not at the centre of the universe, and of Darwin that humanity does not have a unique place among other animals. During his visit, Freud lectured daily at 11 a. Freud, therefore, spoke on the interpretation of dreams and the unconscious on the one day that James attended. A fellow lecturer was Adolf Meyer, who had studied in Switzerland and was influenced by Bleuler, and who became the most influential psychiatric educator in America during the first half of the twentieth century. In Meyer introduced dynamic psychiatry at the Manhattan State Hospital and from to , as profes- sor at Johns Hopkins University, taught the importance of integrating psychology and biology.

However, as Freud himself noted: The most important personal relationship which arose from the meeting at Worcester was that with James J. Putnam — , Professor of Neuropathology at Harvard University. Some years before, he had expressed an unfavourable opinion of psychoanalysis, but now he rapidly became reconciled to it and recommended it to his countrymen and his colleagues in a series of lectures which were as rich in content as they were brilliant in form.

The esteem he enjoyed throughout America on account of his high moral character and unflinching love of truth was of great service to psycho-analysis and protected it against the denunciations which in all probability would otherwise quickly have overwhelmed it. Freud, 30 Putnam became the first President of the American Psychoanalytic Association in His stature and influence in American neurology and psychology was one of the most important factors in the acceptance of psychoanalysis in America. Putnam, like his contemporary William James, came to maturity during the Civil War and the post-war period when issues of morality, religion, spiritualism, and also the relationship between philosophy and the newer psychotherapies were part of intellectual discourse.

Putnam became an important ally for the Freudian perspective, presenting to psychiatrists and neurologists the power of psychoanalytic observations and interventions, particularly discussing the problem with the concept of degeneracy. Many of these constructs are still of utility. The topics added later were narcissism, aggression and the centrality of defence analysis. He stressed that conflicting mental forces caused symptoms as the patient repressed intolerable memories. Psychoanalysis cured by making conscious that which had been repressed. Towards the end of his career, Freud understood that simply lifting repressions or defences allowing verbalization of disturbing memories was not sufficiently therapeutic.

As analysts began to understand the ubiquity and power of defences, it became important to analyse them, not just simply push them to the side. Defense is an essential part of conflict, and self-deception is the essence of defense. It is everywhere the true vehicle of therapeutic influence; and the less its presence is suspected, the more powerfully it operates. Finally, Freud stressed that one of the results of psychoanalysis is the employment of more use- ful purposes of the unconscious instincts, once they are analysed, such as sublimation, where the instincts are employed for the socially constructive purposes.

What went wrong? Unfortunately, Freud began a tradition of expelling critics of his theory from his circle, beginning with Alfred Adler — and Jung, who both diminished the centrality of infan- tile sexuality. In America, extensive analytic participation in the American Psychopathological Association was avoided because of the critique of psychoanalytic ideas, particularly the concept of infantile sexuality. With the encouragement of Freud, the American Psychoanalytic Association was created in However, formal separation from critics promoted a lack of scientific rigour since basic con- cepts did not need to be independently verified. In addition, non-analysts were not intensively exposed to psychoanalytic ideas and were thus less influenced by them.

This scientific self- containment was advanced by Freud himself, despite his early awareness of the importance of independent data. In an American psychologist, Saul Rosenzweig — , wrote to Freud that he had found an experimental method to study salient psychoanalytic propositions. Unfortunately, the dangerous consequences of circular reasoning occurred where theo- rists could make assertions without systematic examination of clinical data. Furthermore, this period of growth was accompanied by the isolation of psychoanalysis from academic psychiatry and psychology. By the s and s, when psychoanalysts were the pre- mier psychiatric educators, organized psychoanalysis did not promote the development of strate- gies for the empirical investigation of psychoanalytic concepts and psychoanalytic interventions.

Also, in contrast to the value placed on premier clinicians, those psychoanalysts who were career investigators were not esteemed. As a result of this devaluation of systematic research, organized psychoanalysis abandoned the field of experimental study and allowed the development of a gen- eration of psychiatric researchers who were unfamiliar with the significance of the complex approach to the individual by psychoanalysts. In order to judge the efficacy of a drug, as com- pared with placebo, for example, one had to ensure that the different groups of patients had com- parable conditions. This need for comparability led to the need for creating a seemingly infinite number of diagnostic categories, able to be reliably diagnosed, in contrast to the dimensional indi- vidualized approach of psychoanalysis.

Diseases began to be treated rather than individuals cared for. However, it came to be seen that many potential patients had to be excluded from studies because in real life most people are very complex and very few fit neatly into the narrow spectrum diagnostic categories required for a drug study. These kinds of studies ignore the individuality and complexity of human beings and how psychiatric disorders follow a complex evolution over the lifetime of a person. Certainly, understanding the complexity of the individual life and the unconscious persistence of the past in the present, including fantasies about past relationships, is the predominant approach of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapy.

How can these complexities be studied systematically? How psychoanalysis can promote its return to an important place in psychiatry Intensive examination of the individual clinical situation in supervising and studying clinical reports in the literature has been the core value of psychodynamic and psychoanalytic education. In psychoanalysis and psychodynamic psychotherapy, the clinical vignette rather than a systematic independent evaluation of clinical material has been the central data base both for the teaching of technique and for theory development.

Studying selected clinical vignettes has been utilized to demonstrate aspects of technique that the student needs to learn, as well as to demonstrate the value of one theoretical approach versus another. This procedure allows for the intensive in-depth exami- nation of a single life. Until recent years, too few experienced clinical analysts have been interested in empirical studies qualitative or quantita- tive. For example, in general, psychoanalytic and psychodynamic education and practice has not incorporated any of the extant systematic evaluations of psychodynamic and psychoanalytic theo- retical concepts and therapeutic interventions such as utilizing the systematic methods of narrative analysis or grounded theory see, for example: Midgely, ; Tuckett, This attitude is unlike that in other clinical fields.

In most areas of psychiatry, for example, there is an attempt limited at times to integrate into practice the results of systematic laboratory evalu- ations of particular interventions, whether the interventions are psychopharmacological or cogni- tive behavioural therapy. This standard of care in psychoanalysis has evolved as a result of the received clinical wisdom that has accumulated over its first century.

However, since there is not one composite psychoana- lytic theory that is accepted by all analysts,4 there are various theoretical principles around which educational and clinical programmes are organized and which influence how students and graduate analysts understand the psychotherapeutic situation. A central problem with the sole reliance on the clinical case study method in the evaluation of effectiveness or efficacy of analytic interventions is its application in a non-systematic, non-blind fashion. This sole reliance on clinical vignettes for theoretical and clinical advancements has left the field open to criticism as being non-scientific.

Therefore, these critics maintain, clinical vignettes can only be utilized to discover hypotheses and not to prove their accuracy. Many have argued against these critiques and have described ways in which to address clinical material in a systematic unbiased fashion see Luyten, Blatt and Corveleyn, Luyten et al. This has led to isolation, intellectual stagnation, fragmentation, and orthodoxy. Sigmund Freud believes that our behavior is motivated by the unconscious which is part of our personality that contains our memories, knowledge, beliefs, and feelings. Working through the unconscious and shaping behavior according to psychological fixations and conflicts or lack thereof, these elements evolve through five levels of psychosexual development Freud, Freud argues that the unconscious molds the personality as it accommodates the id, the ego, and superego Freud, Introduction Sigmund Freud is the great theorist of the mysteries of the human mind and a founder of the psychoanalysis theory which was formed in the s, the theory is well known for accessing self-identity and the self in different ways in order to discover their different meaning, Elliott, Buss, According to Cloninger , Erik Erikson on the other hand is the founder of the psychoanalytic-social Perspective which is mostly referred to as psychosocial development theory, Erikson became interested in child development when he met Anna Freud and he trained in psychoanalysis and with his Montessori diploma, he become one of the most influential psychologist of the 20th century.

Cloninger, This essay explores Freud theory of Psychoanalysis and Erikson Psychosocial theory, analyzing, comparing and contrasting the two theories looking at the basic tenets and assumptions. According to freud,,p. The unconscious continues to affect the behaviour of an individual, even though the person is unaware of these fundamental influences. Freud believed the construction of a human personality is made up by three elements; the id, ego, and superego. The id is present from birth. The personality is mainly unconscious. Sigismund Schlomo Freud or more commonly known as Sigmund Freud was born on the 6th of May and passed away on the 23rd of September He was an Austrian and was originally a neurologist but is now more famously known as the father of psychoanalysis.

Sigmund Freud qualified as a doctor of medicine at the University of Vienna in and mainly carried out research into cerebral palsy, aphasia and microscopic neuro-anatomy at the Vienna General Hospital. In , he completed his habilitation and was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in Psychoanalysis is a set of psychological and psychotherapeutic theories and associated techniques, created by Sigmund Freud and stemming partly from the clinical …show more content… Although these schools differ, most of them emphasize the influence of unconscious elements on the conscious. Under the broad umbrella of psychoanalysis there are at least 22 theoretical orientations regarding human mental development.

Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a specific type of treatment in which the patient verbally expresses his or her thoughts through free associations, fantasies, and dreams, from which the analyst infers the unconscious conflicts causing the patient's symptoms and character problems, and interprets them for the patient Psychoanalysis has received criticism from a wide variety of sources. It is regarded by some critics as a pseudoscience. Nonetheless, it remains a strong influence within the realm of psychiatry, and more so in some quarters than …show more content… The id is an important part of our personality because it allows us to get our basic needs met and is based on our pleasure principle.

In other words, the id wants whatever feels good at the time, with no consideration for the reality of the situation. For example, when a child is hungry shows that the id wants food and therefore the child cries. When the child needs to be changed, the id cries. When the child is uncomfortable or just wants attention, the id speaks up until his or her needs are met. By the time a child reaches the age of 3, the second part of the personality begins to develop.

Freud called this part the Ego. The ego is based on the reality principle. The ego understands that other people have needs and desires and that sometimes being impulsive or selfish can hurt us in the long run. By the age of five, the Superego develops. The Superego is the moral part of us and develops from the moral and ethics shown by the caregiver. According to Freud, the ego is the strongest so that it can satisfy the needs of the id as well as the moral and ethical considerations of the superego. Finding the balance between the id and the super ego is the real challenge of the.

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